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REBAUDIANA IN VITRO

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Balabanova D., Tityanov M., Vassilev A. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF

SINGLE AND COMBINED APPLICATION OF THE HERBICIDE

IMAZAMOX AND AN AMINO ACID EXTRACT ON CLEARFIELD

SUNFLOWER PLANTS

Neshev N., Yanev M., Mitkov A., Tityanov M., Tonev T. CURRENT

TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR WEED MANAGEMENT AT

SUNFLOWER

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Antonov D.A. EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF

ANTI-NUTRITIONAL COMPOUNDS IN GRAINS OF SUMMER TRITICALE

FOR FEED SUPPLY

Burova E.V. INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL THE BASIS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS

Elesin A.N. THE USE OF COMPUTER VIDEO ANALYSIS IN TEACHING MOTOR ACTIONS

Idrissou A.A. ESTIMATION ECOLOGIQUE DES SOLS FORESTIERS

DE LA MEGAPOLE DE MOSCOU (PAR EXEMPLE, LA STATION

EXPERIMENTALE FORESTIERE DE RGAU-MSKHA K.A. TIMIRIAZEV) 155

Pavlenko O.S. STRUCTURE-FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF DGAT-2 FROM EUONYMUS MAXIMOVICZIANUS

Ryazantseva A.V., Mulangi H.V. COMPARING THE MEASUREMENTS IN THE PEDIGREE-TYPE SOVIET HEAVY DRAFT HORSE

Sakhonenko A.N. FORMATION OF A BUSH FROM SEEDLINGS ON THE EXAMPLE OF SOME SPECIES OF THE GENUS VIBURNUM............ 160 Shulgina A.A., Kalashnikova E.A. INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS LIGHT CONDITIONS ON STEVIA REBAUDIANA PARAMETERS IN VITRO........... 161 Shushkina L.V. BAKING INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN REPUBLIC OF KARELIA

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Keywords: turf, kentucky bluegrass, red fescue, sheep fescue, bentgrass, perennial ryegrass, turf density, turfgrass .

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2. Kanehisa M. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes / M .

Kanehisa, S. Goto // Nucleic Acids Research. 2000. Vol. 28. P. 27-30 .

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Keywords: Halyomorpha halys, Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, brown marmorated stink bug, true bugs, invasive species, insects, pests, invasion, phytosanitary monitoring, plant quarantine, plant protection, Sochi, Krasnodar region, Southern Russia, Russian Federation, Russia, Europe 2014 ., , . . ( . ) ( . ). Halyomorpha halys Stl, 1855 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). , . .

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5. Datasheet: Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug). [ ]. : http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/27377 .

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7. Hemala V., Kment P. First Record of Halyomorpha halys and mass occurrence of Nezara viridula in Slovakia (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) // Plant protection Science. 2016. P. 1-7 .

Streito J. Mieux connatre et dclarer la punaise diabolique. [ ]. : http://ephytia.inra.fr/fr/C/20537/Agiir-Mieuxconnaitre-et-declarer-la-punaise-diabolique 577:581.1

   

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2. Durrett T.P., McClosky D.D., Tumaney A.W., Elzinga D.A., Ohlrogge J., Pollard M. A distinct DGAT with sn-3 acetyltransferase activity that synthesizes unusual, reduced-viscosity oils in Euonymus and transgenic seeds // Proc. Natl. Acad .

Sci. USA. 2010. V. 107. P. 94649469 .

3. Zhu J.X. et al. Chemical constituents of plants from the genus Euonymus // Chemistry and biodiversity. 2012. T. 9. V. 6. P. 1055-1076 .

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Agastache Clayton ex Gronov. / .. , .. // . 2015. - 4(55). . 282Wu, J. Production of Ginseng and its bioactive components in plant cell culture: current technological and applied aspect / J. Wu, J.-J. Zhong // J. Biotechnol .

- 1999. - Vol. 68. - P. 89-99 .

3. Kim, Y.B. Metabolomics analysis and biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze treated with methyl jasmonate. / Y.B. Kim, J.K. Kim, M.R .

Uddin // PLoS ONE. - 2013. - 8(5). - e64199 .

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1. Saeidnia S. Satureja: Ethnomedicine, Phytochemical Diversity and Pharmacological Activities / S. Saeidnia, A.R. Gohari, A. Manayi, M. KourepazMahmoodabadi // SpringerBriefs in Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2016. 113 p .

2. Tepe B. A pharmacological and phytochemical overview on Satureja / B. Tepe, M. Cilkiz // Pharmaceutical Biology. 2016. Vol. 54 (3). P. 375-412 .

633.2.03.033

   

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3. Antonides, Lloyd E. Diatomite [Web-resource], 1997. URL:

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Balabanova D., Tityanov M., Vassilev A .

PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SINGLE AND COMBINED

APPLICATION OF THE HERBICIDE IMAZAMOX AND

AN AMINO ACID EXTRACT ON CLEARFIELD SUNFLOWER PLANTS

Keywords: Clearfield production system, sunflower, imazamox, biostimulant, amino acid extract The Clearfield technology in sunflower consists of a combination of the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox with imidazolinone resistant (IMI-R) sunflower hybrids. Nevertheless, temporary plant injuries occasionally may occur after the herbicide application. Plant biostimulants include diverse substances and microorganisms that can improve plant performance. There are numerous reports concerning the positive effects of protein-based biostimulants on plants suffering from both abiotic and biotic stresses [1], but the information for their impact on herbicide-stressed plants is very limited. Therefore, we decided to perform a study aiming to estimate the effect of leaf applied amino acid extract (AAE) on the physiological performance of imazamox-treated IMI-tolerant sunflower plants .

Materials and methods. The lab experiments were carried out with sunflower CL hybrid Meldimi (Imisun trait) in hydroponic culture at controlled environmental conditions in Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental design included four treatments (3 pots per treatment, 4 plans per pot), namely: (1) nontreated plants (control), (2) plants, treated by AAE (1% Terra-Sorb foliar, 1 ml/plant), (3) plants, treated by imazamox (132 g/plant equivalent to 40 g ai h-1) and (4) plants, treated by imazamox and AAE. Physiological responses of plants, exposed to single and combined application of imazamox and AAE were monitored and evaluated by a number of molecular, biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis. Here, we summarized the most important results of our study and briefly reported the effects of imazamox and AAE on several chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in the upper leaves of sunflower plants. The fluorescence parameters were measured with a pulse modulation fluorometer (MINI-PAM, Heinz Walz, Germany) .

Results. In general, our results showed temporal negative impact of imazamox on the performance of sunflower plants, which was less pronounced or even not observed when the plants were exposed to combined application of imazamox and AAE. Summarizing, the main physiological effects of AAE on imazamox-treated

sunflower plants were:

Imazamox-treated sunflower plants were distinguished by leaf chlorosis and deformations in young leaves as well as delayed and inhibited growth. These symptoms were strongly pronounced at 7 days after treatment (DAT) and were absent in the new leaves at 14 DAT. The growth of plants exposed to the combined treatment (AAE + imazamox) was less retarded as compared with that of imazamox-treated plants .

The residual herbicide concentration in the leaves of imazamox-treated plants (6-7 0.2 mg kg-1) was quite similar to that in the leaves of plants, receiving combined application providing evidence that the both compounds did not interfere during the infiltration process. The photosynthetic performance of plants receiving combined application of imazamox and AAE was better preserved as compared with that of only imazamox-treated plants. The single application of imazamox diminished net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance as well as both chlorophylls and total carotenoids contents. The plants, receiving combined application (imazamox + AAE) had less retarded leaf gas exchange. The content of photosynthetic pigments was also less affected as compared with only imazamox-treated plants .

Considering the positive effects of the combined imazamox+AAE application on photosynthetic performance of sunflower plants as compared with single imazamox treatment, in the next experiments we applied different chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. It is known that chlorophyll fluorescence parameters can be used as indicators of the efficiency of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides [2] .

Table 1 Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters on sunflower, 7 and 14 DAT. Fv/Fm - maximal quantum yield of photosystem II and ETR photosynthetic electron transport rate [electrons m-2s-1] .

The values represent the mean of three biological replicates. Different letters (a, b, c) express significant differences (P 0.05) Treatment 7 days after tretment 14 days after tretment Fv/Fm ETR Fv/Fm ETR Control 0,827 (a) 91,9 (a) 0,835 (a) 94,5 (a) AAE 0,830 (a) 91,2 (a) 0,830 (a) 92,9 (a) Imazamox 0,773 (b) 64,6 (c) 0,804 (c) 78,2 (b) Imazamox + AAE 0,785 (b) 78,5 (b) 0,814 (b) 87,9 (ab) Our results showed that the maximal quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in plants treated with imazamox was significantly decreased at 7 and 14 DAT (Table 1), but was still in a range of values typical (or characteristic) for healthy leaves (0.75-0.83; [3]). The photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) of imazamox-exposed plants was also significantly reduced in both time points, by 29 % and 17 % at 7 and 14 DAT, respectively. The combined treatment with imazamox+AAE showed improving effect on ETR compared to the plants received single imazamox application with 18% at 7 DAT and 12% at 14 DAT. Based on our results we may conclude that the combined application of imazamox and the AAE diminished the negative effects of the herbicide on sunflower plants, which may be seen by the ameliorated chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic rate and plant growth .

References

1. Calvo P, Nelson L and JW Kloepper (2014) Agricultural uses of plant biostimulants. Plant and Soil, 383:341 .

2. Riethmuller-Haage, I., L. Bastiaans, M.J. Kropff, J. Harbinson and C .

Kempenaar (2006). Can photosynthesis-related parameters be used to establish the activity of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides on weeds? Weed Science, 54(6):974-982 .

3. Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H.R., & Oquist, G. (1993). Chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool in photosynthesis research. In: Photosynthesi and production in a changing environment: a field and laboratory manual (Eds. D. O. Hall et al., Chapman and Hall, London, 193-205 .

   

Keywords: sunflower, tillage, herbicides, Clearfield technology, press Sun technology The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is grown mainly for its seeds that have very high oil content. The oil has very high nutritional and taste value .

Bay FAO data, the area seeded with sunflower around the globe is more than 10 000 000 ha. That makes the sunflower the third most important oilseed crop after the soybean and the oilseed rape. Bulgaria is among the countries with the highest sunflower seed production worldwide. Bay FAO data for 2014 the sunflower was seed on 843 644 ha in the country and was the second most grown crop after the winter wheat [1]. The sunflower plants are also very important for the proper crop rotation and its drought resistance allows growing the crop under non irrigated conditions .

One of the most harmful factors in the sunflower seed production is the weeds .

The weed control is very important and effective in the early development stages of the crop from the seeding to phenophase 6-8 leaves. After the beginning the stem growth, the plants successfully concur the weeds [2]. The most distributed weeds in the Bulgarian sunflower fields are the weed species common amaranth (Amaranthus retroflehus L.), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.), fat-hen (Chenopodium album L.), wild hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) yellow foxtail (Setaria spp.), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.), johnson grass (Sorghum halepense L.), creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense L.), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), some new races of the root parasite broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), etc. Results from our trails confirmed that very successful weed control at the conventional sunflower production could be performed after the deep plowing immediately after harvesting the predecessor crop and the additional soil tillage in the summer and autumn. Our trail results also showed that the sunflower crop tolerates the before sowing and after emergence tillage branding. For obtaining high weed control the branding should be done on time to match the period of mass weed emergence. In the conditions of high weed infestation on the field (when herbicides are not used or are used non effective ones) after two or three inter row cultivation on 6-8 cm depth showed very good results. It was very important that the last cultivation was done so the crop plants were earthed up .

For many years at the conventional sunflower production there had been practically insoluble problems. Some of the registered selective herbicides for usage at sunflower did not have effect against the common cocklebur, creeping thistle, wild mustard, wild hemp, etc. Great success of the control of these noxious weed species was obtained with the appearance of the cropping systems Clearfield and press Sun. These two technologies became more advanced during the last ten years. The adapting of these two systems to the agro-ecological conditions of Bulgaria is an object of continuous and lasting studies of our research team .

The press Sun technology is based on the resistance of the sunflower hybrids to the sulfonylurea herbicide tribenuron-methyl. The active substance is absorbed by the weeds roots and leafs and is rapidly transferred into the whole plants .

It is blocking the cell division at the growing points of the roods and stems of the sensitive plants. The conducted trails during the period from 2005 to 2016 confirmed the herbicide efficacy against more than 50 broadleaf weed species. As a result of some not desirable changes in the development of the sunflower plants after the application of the press Sun technology, the selection was redirected for obtaining homozygous hybrids, not heterozygous ones. By this way the imperfections of the technology were limited .

At the Clearfield tecnology, the grown hybrids are resistant to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox. The active substance inhibits the acetolactate synthase ALS, the enzyme common to the biosynthesis of the amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. By its mode of action, the active substance controls the broadleaf weeds, as well as the grass weeds. Other essential advantage of the technology is the high efficacy of the used herbicide against the root parasite broomrape. For optimization of the existing technology, control of the new broomrape races and increasing the tolerance of the sunflower hybrids to imazamox, from 2016 there was released more developed version of the technology in Bulgaria. The name of the new technology is Clearfield plus. This system provides sunflower growers a better tool to manage weeds [3]. By applying this technology two-sided protection against the broomrape during the vegetation and better and more effective control against the weed associations was performed. The seed yield and the oil content of the Clearfield plus hybrids was higher. Indisputable proof for the importance of the Clearfield plus technology is the increased interest and participation of leading seed producing companies around the globe .

The newly developed hybrids and the advanced herbicides at the two sunflower cropping systems are very important factor for successful and profitable sunflower seed production .

References

1. FAO, 2016. Agricultural statistics Database. http:/www.fao.org

2. Tonev, T., 2000. Handbook for integrated weed management and kultura of agriculture. Publisher Biblioteka Zemedelsko obrazovanie, VSI Plovdiv, Book 2 .

3. Pfenning, M., Tan S., Perez-Brea J., 2012. Improved Weed Control in Clearfield-Plus Sunflowers with superior herbicide solutions. Proceedings of 18th International Sunflower Conference, Mar del Plata, Argentina. 535-538 .

: 636.085.8

   

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Keywords: rabbits, lactulose, prebiotic, fertility, weight, the safety of livestock rabbits .

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2. Brown, J.L. Assessing reproductive status in wild felids by noninvasive faecal steroid monitoring / J.L. Brown, D.E. Wildt // Int. Zoo Yb. 1996. V. 35. P. 173191 .

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5. Kantanen J. Genetic diversity of domestic cattle (B. taurus) in North Europe / J. Kantanen. - Joensuu, 1999. V. 52. . 315-320 .

Nei M. Genetic distance between populations / M. Nei // Amer. Natur. 6 .

1972. - No 106. - P. 283-292 .

7. Wilson R.D. U.S. genetic systems and selections / R.D. Wilson // Holstein World. - 1990. - No 87 (4). . 234-246 .

637.15.1

   

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4. Foltys V. Occurence and detection of aerobic sporulating Microorganisms in raw cows milk / V. Foltys, K. Kirchnerov // Slovak J. Anim. Sci. - 2010. . 83 87 .

5. Rodionov G.V. Regulating the number of microorganisms in raw milk / G.V. Rodionov, S.L. Belopukhov, R.T. Mannapova, O.G. Dryakhlykh // Isvestiya TSKhA. 2013. special issue.- . 163-172 .

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1. Almond G.W. Diagnosis of pregnancy/ Current therapy in large animal Theriogenology/ Eds. Youngquist R.S., Threlfall W.R. Saunders, Elsevier, 2007. P. 765-773 .

2. De Rensis F. Early diagnosis of pregnancy in sows by ultrasound evaluation of embryo development and uterine echotexture/ F. De Rensis, E. Bigliardi, E .

Parmigiani, A.R. Peters// Vet. Rec. - 2000. Vol.147. P. 267-270 .

3. Flowers, L.W., Knox, V.R. Pregnancy Diagnosis in Swine/ Pork. Information Getaway, PIG- 2000. Vol.143. P. 1-9 .

4. Inaba T. Early pregnancy diagnosis in swine by ultrasonic linearelectronic scanning/ T. Inaba, Y. Nakazima, N. Matsui, T. Imori// Theriogenology. 1983. Vol.20. - P. 97-101 .

5. Jackson G. Pregnancy diagnosis in the sow using real-time ultrasonic scanning/ Vet. Rec. -1986. Vol.119. P. 90-91 .

6. Maes D. Accuracy of trans-abdominal ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis in sows using a linear or sector probe/ D. Maes, J. Dewulf, C. Vanderhaeghe et al. // Reprod.Dom.Anim. 2006. - Vol.41. P. 438-443 .

7. Miller G.M., Sh. M. Breen, Roch S.L. et al. Characterization of image and labor requirements for positive pregnancy diagnosis in swine using two methods of real-time ultrasound// J. Swine Health and Production. 2003. Vol. 11. N.5. P. 233-239 .

Taverne M.A.M. Pregnancy diagnosis in pigs: A eld study comparing 8 .

linear-array real-time ultrasound scanning and amplitude depth analysis/ Taverne M.A.M., Oving L., van Lieshout M., Willemse A.H. // Vet Quart. 1985. Vol.7. P. 271276 .

636

   

: ..-.. . .

Keywords: cows, ultrasound, pregnancy, Holstein, breed, endometritis .

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Keywords: llium cepa, A.roylei, P.destructor, , , F1-, , .

llium L., - . (), . .

( Peronospora destructor) - (Allium cepa L.) - [1, 2] .

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1. Banga, H. Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to the Ms locus controlling fertility restoration in onion (Allium cepa L.) / H. Banga, S. Kimb, S.O. Parka, K.S. Yooa, B.S. Patila // Scientia Horticulturae. 2013. Vol. 153 (4). P. 4249 .

2. Dunstan, D.I. Improved growth of tissue cultures of the onion, Allium cepa L. / D.I.Dunstan, K.C.Short // Physiologia Plantarum. 1977. Vol. 41(1). P .

70-72 .

3. Seongjun Kim,Cheol-Woo Kim, Min-Seon Choi, Sunggil Kim (2016) .

Development of a simple PCR marker tagging the Allium roylei fragment harboring resistance to downy mildew (Peronospora destructor) in onion (Allium cepa L.) Euphytica (2016) 208:561569:// DOI 10.1007/s10681-015-1601-2 .. 4 .

: ., -. :

06.01.05 /[ : " - .."]. - , 2016.- 335 .

631.527.51

   

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Keywords: Brassica oleracea, double haploid, pure line .

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Keywords: interspecific hybrid, white cabbage, B.carinata, B.oleracea, race, resistance, black rot, Xanthomonas campestris .

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9 Xcc. , Brassica juncea Brassica carinata Xcc . , B.oleracea, , Xcc .

, 1, 3, 4, 8 9- Xcc, (PI199947) B.carinata (Bu1) B.oleracea .

/ 2 B. oleracea-carinata (OC) B.carinataoleracea (CO). , 3 Xcc 1, 3 4-, ( 8 9- ). , . , , OC CO, 3n=4x=35 , [2] .

OC CO , OC . BC1 , - 18 29 34 36 - . Xcc, 3- , . 19 3- BC1, 3 2n=4x=18. .

. ., . ., . . (1989). 1 .

// . - 3 69-71 ., .. (2016). .// . . 11 .

. 39-40 633.812

   

: ..-.., .. Keywords: Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans, cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata L .

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans (Wr.) Sn. El Hans , . . [1] .

.

. , 94 , 27 67 . 8 .

: , Fusarium oxysporum . 3- 26-29 . .

Plantec 144 2 , 5.5-6.0 .

22-24 , 16-18 . , . 3..4- , Plantec 64 5, . .

.

, : (0): 0 - , 1 - , , 2 - 1-2 , 3 - , , 4 - , [2] .

/ 20, 29, 38, 45, 50 . . 20 . 29 , . , .

48 46 , 11 /, .

.., .., .. 1 .

F1. // . 2007 - 7. . 156-158 .

2. Lv H., Yang L., Kang J., Wang Q., Wang X., Fang Z., Zhuang L., Zhang Y., Lin Y., Yang Y., Xie B., Liu B., Liu J.. Development of InDel markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance in cabbage // (Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht) .

2013 .

635.63:631.527.56

   

: ..-.., ..., . .

Keywords: radish, maintainer line, CMS Ogura, F1 hybrid .

- .

2015 . :

, , ( N rfrf). F1- , , F2 [1]. , , , .

, ( Nrfrf), Ogura-CMS [2] .

.. .

600 , . .. . 0,2 . . , 1% .

SCAR Ogura:

ORF 138 OGU [3,4] .

- , Ogura, . , ( NRfRf) ( Nrfrf) .

. 2017 , , .

1. Ogura H (1968) Studies on the new male sterility in Japanese radish, with special reference to the utilization of this sterility towards the practical raising of hybrid seeds. Mem Fac Agri Kagoshima Univ. 6: p.39-78 .

.., .., .. F1- 2 .

(Raphanus Sativus L.) // ,2015, 1, .8-13 .

3. Giancola S., Rao Y., Chaillou S., Hiard S., Martin-Canadell A., Pelletier G., Budar F. Cytoplasmic suppression of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in European natural populations of Raphanus raphanistrum. // Theor Appl Genet, 2007 .

4. Motegi T., Nou I.S., Zhou J., Kanno A., Kameya T., Hirata Y. Obtaining an Ogura-type CMS line from asymmetrical protoplast fusion between cabbage (fertile) and radish (fertile). // Euphytica Vol.129, 2003, p.319-323 .

635.744:631.524.84

   

: ..-.., . .

Keywords: flavonoids, Lamiaceae, Hyssopus officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Agastache foeniculum, Origanum vulgare - , . , , , [1] .

:

() (). [2] .

- , : (Hyssopus officinalis L.), (Melissa officinalis L.), (Agastache foeniculum (Pursh.) O .

Kuntze), (Dracocephalum moldavica L.), (Origanum vulgare L.), (Thymus sepillum L.) (Th. vulgaris L.) .

. .

- .. . 2015-2016 . [3]. 1 .

1 , % 0,61 1,28 2,75 2,15 0,95 0,56 1,16 0,55 1,34 0,49 0,70 0,30 2,50 2,03 , % 1,14 0,82 2,04 1,42 4,49 1,04 2,83 1,64 3,12 1,63 2,96 1,90 3,41 2,97 1, .

, : , , . , . , , .

( 2,97-3,41%, 4,49 %, 3,12%). , ( - 0,70%, 0,61% , , . , , 2 % .

1. Agati G. et al. Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants: location and functional significance //Plant Science. 2012. . 196. . 67-76 .

2. Atanassova M., Georgieva S., Ivancheva K. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, antioxidant capacity and biological contaminants in medicinal herbs //Journal of the University of Chemical Technology & Metallurgy. 2011. . 46. . 1 .

.., .. // .: . 2010. . 160 .

,

631.95:631.6.02(470.331)

   

: ... . .

Keywords: winds, temperature, humidity, (p)reserve, sanctuary, ecosystem, CO2 (Carbon Dioxid)e, greenhouse gases, monitoring, spruce .

2 . . . , CO2 ( ), CH4 () N2O ( ), , , [1]. , , . - , , 20 [1] .

- 2 ( ) - .

() () .

5 , , .

- () (). ( ), .

- 300 (). ( ), [2] .

10 , in situ Li-820 , , .

2 - () 4,7 ( CO2/2 ) , 33,9 ( CO2/2 ). 2 . , , . , . , 13,9 +26,4, , . : 12 +20,3, 13 +25,9, 13,2 +19,5, . , 13,9 +26,4, , .

2 , , , , .

.. . - . .: , 2007. 80 .

.. 2 .

2 // . 2008. 4. . 1-4 .

631.81.033

   

: ..., . .

Keywords: fallow land, soil horizons, sod-podzolic soil, fertilizers, corn, plant productivity, chemical composition, macronutrients, micronutrients .

, , 30 40 . - . , . (, ), , , ( pH1) . , .

, .

( ) . - . , .

- (2015-16..) - .

-150 (), 95-100 , , .

. , .

. NPK 40-60 , NPK + Zn, Cu, Mo 40-60 , NPK 20-40 , PK 40-60 . , ( ) -- (0-20 ) .

, . 75 % , 2- , - -- 60-80 . 69 64 % . 60-80 -- , , 0-20 , - 60-80 . , . (, ) - 60-80 . , 0-40 - (Cu, Zn, Mo) 20-40 60-80 . , - 40-60 (Cu, Zn, Mo) , 3 , (1,0) 76 % .

, - .

.., .. . // , . 6, 2014 .

.., .. 2 .

, . // 5, 2014, . 1-11 .

.., .., .., .. .

3 .

XX . .: , 2010. - 426 .

632

   

: ... . .

Keywords: Agricultural monitoring, insects, UAV .

.

- . .

" " [1] .

. 180-400 . . , . . .

. .

. . . 2 1 /. 1-2 .

, ( 300 ) .

, . . . .

. , . .

1. Michal Mazur, PwC; "Six Ways Drones Are Revolutionizing Agriculture"; https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601935/six-ways-drones-arerevolutionizing-agriculture/; July 20, 2016 ( : 02.05.2017) .

.. - : 2 .

/ http://www.philippovich.ru/Library/Books/ITS/wwwbook/ ist4b/its4/fyodorov.htm ( : 02.05.2017) .

631.895

   

: . .

Keywords: sewage sludge, medical waste, waste coffee production of sodpodzolic sandy loam soil, humus content and group composition of humus, labile organic matter .

- . , , , , . . .

.

, . - 10-12 / .

- , (), () () .

- .. 1992-2-16. - , 60 . 1%, 5,8, 120-140 /, - 70-80 / .

6 :

1. 4. - 10 / . - ()

5. - 20/ W= 70%

2. N60P60K60

3. 20 / 6. - 10/ W = 90% , 1 (1 3 ) .

, , , , .

0,2% (6 /). , N60P60K60, 0,1% ( 3 /) 0,3% (9 /); (20 /) 0,5% (15 /), +0,3% (+9 /); (10/)- 0,5% (15/), +0,3 %(+9 /); (20/) - 0,2% ( 6 /) 0,4% (12 /); (10/) 0,4% (12 /), +0,2% (+6 /). , , , 0,4% (12 /) .

1,20% (36 /) .

, N60P60K60, 0,02% ( 0,6 /) 1,22% (36,6 /); (20 /) 1,26% (37,8 /), +0,04% (+1,8 /); (10/) 1,26% (37,8/), +0,04 %(+1,8 /); (20/) - 1,23% (36,9 /); (10/) 1,22% (36,6 /), +0,02% (+0,6 /). , , , , 0,03% (0,9 /) .

. - 20,2 %, - 27,3%. N60P60K60 23,3%, 25,2%, /- 0,92;

(20/) 26,2%, 23,5%, /- 1,11;

(10 /) 25,9%, 22,7%, /- 1,14;

(20 /) 23,7%, 25,4%, /- 0,93;

(10/) 23,3%, 25,6%, /- 0,91 .

, , .

, , .

1 .

2015 . . , 2016 279 .

.., .., .., .. . , 2016, 2, .65-70 .

631.4 .., . .

- .. -

Keywords: GIS, digital soil mapping, remote sensing data, pollution . (), - , .

, .

. , . - - .

. : , , , , .

, , , , . , , , ( ) .

, , -. , .

, .-. , .

, .

, , . , . , .

( R): / .., .., .., ..- : , 2012. .

.., .. A .. - / , 2008, 9. . 63 64 .

.., .., / : , .: - - . .. , 2012, . 140-154 .

4. Grimwald S. Multi-cntena characterization of recent digital soil mapping and modeling approaches//Geodenna. V. 152. 2009. P. 195-207 .

631.95:631.84:631.4 . .

-

N2O

-

: .., . . .

Keywords: agrophytocoenosis, nitrogen from fertilizer, nitrogen fluxes, soil fluxes .

. . .

:

; ; (26-58% ) ; ; .

- .

. 4 : 1) ; 2) NS 30:7 (), 3) CAN+S 27:4 (), 4) CAN+S 27:4 ( ), . 4560, 60 /. 0,5 1 , 4-. , , 15N ( 95,5 .%). . . ( ) .

( 4560) . (63-66% ), 37%. , . CanS. CanS .

NS (41% ). CanS CanS. CanS, NS .

, .

, N2O, - ( ), ( N2O H4 2), , N2O . , , 1,46 N2O -2 -1, 0,202 N2O -2 -1. , . N2O .

.., .. . .: - -, 2010. 174 .

.., .. . .: - -, 2010. 157 .

.., .., .. . 3 .

. , 2014, 5, . 20-26 .

631.4 .., .., .., . .

: ..., . .

Keywords: drone, NDVI, barley, monitoring of crops .

() , , : , , , , , .. [1] .

NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) , [2]. . , NDVI, , GreenSeeker RT200. [3] .

- . .. , [4]. , , , , , [4] .

4 , ( 20-22 ) (12) , .

DJI Phantom 2 Mapir, , , NDVI. 36 , 16- . , QGIS , , , .

NDVI . . 0,76, . .

RGB, , 0,63 0,64. . 0,52 .

, , .

.. // . 2015. 1. . 80-85 .

. 2 .

: /.. , .. , .. , .. , .. . .: - .. , 2013. 148 .

.., . . 3 .

Greenseeker // . 2016. 6 (194). . 56-61 .

, . . 4 .

- .. . .: , 2015. . 76-80 .

631

   

: ... . .

Keywords: Fluxes of greenhouse gases from soils, global climate change, carbon dioxide and methane .

. . .. [1] .

- - .. .

.

- , - - :

() (), - (), (), - (), () - () .

. : , , [2]. , 30 60 . . : 5000 . .

, . (r = 0.91). 36,88 /2, 34,96 /2 . (1,5 /2 ). - ( /2 ) .

.., .., .. - - -// . 2007. 4. .29-44

2. Castaldi S. et al. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from soils of burned grassland savannah of central Africa Bio geosciences 2010. P. 34593471 .

631.8:633.16:631.559:631.4

   

Keywords: fertilizers, barley, productivity, chernozem .

( , ), , [1] .

. , , . .

, 2014 . : , , ( ), , , . 221. 207,2 2 (5,6 37), 140 2 (4 35). . (N16P16K16), (N34), (N46), (2/; 1/). - .

: 1. ; 2. N40P40K40 ; 3. + N30 ( ); 4. + N60 ( ); 5. + N30 (); 6. + N60 (); 7. N30 ( ); 8. N60 ( ); 9. + N30 ( ) + (); 10. + N60 ( ) + (); 11. + () .

, - . - .

, 194,0-301,0-382,6% , 1,4-0,6-3,20. 2014 89,7% , 3,70 .

65,4 . 0,90. .

2,9 , 1,30. . 3,80, 112,9% . 2016 521,3 235,8 , .

2016 (. 1). 221,1% , 2,16 /. N40P40K40 , 0,20 /. + N60 ( ) + N60 ( ) + () 4,40 4,31 / .

1 , / 2014 1 3,80 3,05 2,16 3,00 - - - 05, / 0,39 0,46 0,23 0,36 . . 0,35 / N40P40K40 , 1,76 / + N60 ( ) + () .

.., .. 1 .

// , 2012, 5. . 22-27 .

504.53.06

   

: ..., . .

Keywords: soil dynamics, land-use changes, fallow, forest fallow succession, soil respiration, organic carbon of soils, spatial diversity, greenhouse gases emissions .

, [3]. . , , , [1]. , , . 2 , , , 80 % [2]. , , , [1]. - , - .

2 - .

5 : 1) ; 2) , 10-15 ; 3) , 20-30 ; 4) , 80-100 ; 5) - 120 .

(1 ) (1 ) 2 in situ c Li-820 , , . ( , , pH, 25 2) .

2 2016 2. 2 : 2 64 65 2/2* ( / ). 2 , 10 15 (49 - 50 2/2*). 2 . 2 (29 30 2/2*) - 120 .

2. 10 19. ( 45 2/2*), 120 ( 25 2/2*). 2 ( ), . 7 14 , ( 73 2/2*). 2, ( 21 2/2* 41 2/2*) .

2 2 , , .

.., .. . 1 .

. // . 2005. 9. . 11121121 .

.. . .: , 2011. 193 .

3. Mokhov I. I., Bezverkhny V. A., and Karpenko A. A., 2005. Diagnosis of relative variations in atmospheric greenhouse gas contents and temperature from Vostok Antarctic ice-core paleoreconstructions, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 523536 .

631.81.095.337

   

: ... . .

Keywords: selenium, silicon, aluminum, protective effect .

, . , , , , [3] .

, , [3] .

.

(, ) [3] . 4- - , , : 2,3%, pHKCl 4,0; 5,2 /100 ; S 8,7 -/100 ; V 66%, Al 3,4 /100. ( ) II (48 / ) III (90 /) [2] .

/: N150100100 [1]. , , .

(14% ) , 5 /. VI ( ) .

() Se Si, (5% ) 2,5 50 .

Na2SeO3 Na2SiO39H2O, . 16 .

, , , 50% 34% , .

, , . (7,2 /) ( 29%), 10%, 5,6 / .

70% . , . , , , .

, , . , , .

, .. / . .

1 .

. - .: , 1968. - 266 .

, .. :

.. . : 06.01.04 / .. . - ., 2014. - 182 .

, .. Se, Si, Zn 3 .

. / , .. .. // . - 2014. 4. . 14-17 .

631.48

   

Keywords: digital soil mapping, the structure of soil cover, erosion, eroded soil .

() (, 2012) . [4]. , . , - [1][2] .

.

- - -- . , .

: 1:10000 ( ) .

. , [3] . , .

, . / . .. , .. . .:, 2005. 784 .

.. - . .: , 2011. 443 ., [12] . .: .

.. : . . / . .: , 2004. 416 .

.., .. . .: : . .: .. , 2012 350 .

631.95 . .

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR AGROTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER (DSSAT)

: ..., . .

Keywords: DSSAT, production process model .

(the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer, DSSAT) 15 . DSSAT , , , , , , [1] .

[2] .

DSSAT v 4.5 CSM - . .

.

. , , , 2015-2016 . , , .

1

, , , . (R2 = 0.98-0.99), : , .

2016 15

1. Jones, J. W.; Hoogenboom, G.; Porter, C. H.; Boote, K. J.; Batchelor, W .

D.; Hunt, L. A.; Wilkens, P. W.; Singh, U.; Gijsman, A. J.; Ritchie, J. T. (2003). "The DSSAT cropping system model". European Journal of Agronomy 18 (34): 235 .

doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00107-7

2. International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer .



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 |



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