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«САМАРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ПУТЕЙ СООБЩЕНИЯ Кафедра иностранных языков АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных ...»

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Министерство транспорта Российской Федерации

Федеральное агентство железнодорожного транспорта

САМАРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ ПУТЕЙ СООБЩЕНИЯ

Кафедра иностранных языков

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1 курса

железнодорожных специальностей

дневной формы обучения

Составители: М.В. Жесткова

С.Я. Никитина

Самара 2005

УДК 4И(Англ)

Английский язык: Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей дневной формы обучения. – Самара: СамГАПС, 2005. с .

Утверждено на заседании кафедры 13 января 2005, протокол № 3 .

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета академии .

Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей дневной формы обучения. Цель данного пособия заключается в том, чтобы выработать у студентов навыки чтения, адекватного понимания и перевода текстов по специальности широкого профиля, а также активного владения основами грамматической системы современного английского языка .

Составители: Марина Владимировна Жесткова Светлана Яковлевна Никитина Рецензенты: кандидат филологических наук, доцент Е.В. Гусева (Самарский государственный педагогический университет) кандидат филологических наук, доцент С.И. Капишникова (Самарская государственная академия путей сообщения) Подписано в печать 06.04.05.Формат 60х90 1/16 .

Бумага писчая. Печать офсетная. Усл. п. л. 9,7 .

Тираж 500 экз. Заказ № 50 .

© Самарская государственная академия путей сообщения, 2005

LESSON ONE

SAMARA STATE RAILWAY ACADEMY

Ex.1. Practice the reading .

c process, facility, recent, cement, necessary, civil, discipline, specify, velocity, advance, announcement, incident, cylinder, cellular, descend, license, electricity, science, exceed;

clay, helicopter, concourse, academy, concrete, crosstie, decay, component, company, calculate, carry, click, comfortable, faculty, communication, compact, conductor, decrease;

concern, concept, capacity, cybernetics, cycle, circular, ceramic, circuit, practice, cancel, commerce, competence, council, bicycle, incandescent, specific, convince;

access, accelerate, accept, accident, succeed, successful, accommodation, according, accumulator, accompany;

efficient, commercial, politician, financial, artificial, official, special, specialist, speciality, specialization, especially, sufficient, association, sociable, provincial, appreciate, academician, ancient .

g damage, flange, originate, register, engine, emergency, region, huge, technology, digital, oxygen, urgent, agency, barge, generation, ecology, generate, longitude, bridge, German, suggest, dangerous, change, passenger, margin, gyps;

gravel, megabyte, agree, gang, regular, gasoline, gateway, graduate, ignite, cargo, goal, aggregate, degree, gasoline, gradient, angular, guide, guess;

gauge, engage, garage, baggage, luggage;

BUT: gear, target, get, give, begin, bogie .

аu, aw automobile, because, autonomous, launch, audit, fault, precaution, pause, audience, exhaust, automation, applaud, auction, hydraulic, author, audio, haulage, auxiliary, inauguration, awful, law, drawbridge, shawl; dawn, raw, awning; BUT: gauge, laugh .





–  –  –

Ex.2. Describe the relationship between each of the following words (antonyms, synonyms, neither) .

1) term/ semester 7) different/ similar 13) to get/ to receive/ to obtain

2) strong/ weak 8) a number of/ several 14) to include/ to comprise

3) state/ private 9) to achieve/ to reach 15) to include/ to exclude

4) to train/ a train 10) to listen to/ to hear 16) to comprise of/ to consist of

5) to study/ to learn 11) to increase/ to grow 17) to increase/ to decrease

6) different/ various 12) to provide/ to supply 18) up-to-date/ out-of-date

–  –  –

1) He worked hard and failed all the exams successfully. 2) The students of the extra-mural department require extra leave during the examination session. 3) It's difficult to graduate from Moscow University because the competition is always intense there. 4) You can read about weak methods of learning English in this journal. 5) Our laboratory will be equipped according to out-ofdate requirements but it will take time and money. 6) After school she started working as she didn’t want to pay attention to her parents. 7) The students are required not to attend lessons as well as to take notes at the lectures. 8) Subjects that are included in the program of freshmen differ from those that are included in the program of first-year students. 9) The course of studies at our Academy achieves five years. 10) Why do you often attend lessons? 11) Did you learn the letter from your friend last week? 12) All the freshmen will fail their first examinations in January. 13) Education in private schools is free of charge in Russia. 14) The program of senior students excludes many theoretical subjects as well as practical training. 15) Several applicants are going to enter the post graduate course .

Ex.5. Choose the correct word or words .

1) Many well-known railway companies from [various; similar; different; difficult] countries [were late for; missed; failed; took part in] the international exhibition .

2) The television company [comprises; receives; requires; pays] most of its money from advertising .

3) A new international orbital system [obtains; includes; reaches; provides] telephone, telegraph and telex communications with ships in every part of the world ocean .

4) Russia ranks second in the world, after the USA, in the length of the railway [equipment;

network; trains; operation] .

5) [According to; as well as; such as] the decision of the transport committee the number of buses operating on the city’s routes will be [divided; put into operation; increased; trained] .

6) Nowadays much attention is paid to the [operation; achievements; requirements;

development] of high-speed railway traffic .

7) The scientific and technological [achievements; equipment; branches; network] brought great changes in people’s life and work .

8) The [requirements; number; achievements; attention] of passengers traveling between Helsinki and St. Petersburg will increase to 6 million in 2010 .

9) Our best diesel locomotive [obtains; requires; lasts; develops] a speed of 170 km per hour .

10) Britain's railway [branch; higher school; network] was nationalized in 1947 .

11) He spent almost the whole day at the airport as his plane was seven hours [last; late; ago] .

12) There is usually [an increase; a decrease; a development; a growth] in the number of road accidents in winter .

13) Only hard work will allow you to [require; include; provide; achieve] success .

14) The delegation will leave for London as soon as they [decrease; supply; receive; require] their visas .

15) Do you know how to [operate; provide; increase; reach] this equipment?

Ex.6. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions if necessary .

1) ___ graduation ___ Railway Academy he worked as a railway dispatcher ___ a large terminal. 2) In Britain students' grants depend ___ the income ___ their parents. 3) The washing machine is provided ___ the instruction on how to operate it. 4) By 1913 the railway network of Russia consisted ___ 25 state lines and 13 private lines belonging ___ different companies. 5) I was included ___ the list ___ speakers ___ the conference. 6) If the student misses ___ a lecture or is late ___ a seminar he has to inform the monitor ___ the group for the reason. 7) Will you wait ___ me after the lessons? 8) The new high speed railway line will be put ___ operation ___ a week. 9) What subjects are you strong ___? 10) Great attention is paid ___ ecological problems all over the world .

11) When I entered ___ the Institute I knew very little ___ the history ___ its foundation. 12) Our automobile is equipped ___ radio communication and audio signaling. 13) Students ___ technical institutes have practical training ___ various enterprises. 14) Now the Trans-Siberian Mainline is divided ___ six railways in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. 15) He speaks ___ a number of foreign languages. 16) The scholarship provided me ___ my first opportunity to travel overseas .

17) Water consists ___ hydrogen and oxygen .

about after at [3] for [2] from in [3] into [2] of [7] on to [2] with [3] Ex.7. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words. Consult the box .

l) This situation ___ my presence. 2) The academic year in all Russian higher educational institutions is ___ into two terms. 3) Must the students of your Institute ___ all the lessons or can they choose the most interesting ___? 4) The Internet is a global computer ___ having millions of users all over the world. 5) This shop sells ___ cars ___ motorbikes. 6) The operation of Metro doesn't ___ on the weather conditions. 7) This commercial bank has a number of ___ in the Volga region. 8) Hurry up, if you don't want to ___ the lecture. 9) Vacations never ___ very long. 10) The Japanese company ___ the first pocket-size color TV set. 11) Safe ___ of freight and passenger trains requires a reliable system of signaling. 12) Next ___ we'll have a course of lectures on Philosophy. 13) Last year there was one case when a student ___ his exam in English. 14) This station is the ___ stop of our train .

15) Rudolf Diesel ___ an engine, which was one of the remarkable engineering ___ of the 20th century. 16) The river ___ the city into two parts. 17) The ___ «radar» is composed of the first letters of «radio, detection and ranging» .

–  –  –

Ex.8. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the verbs to be, to have and put questions to the underlined words .

1) Before 1973 our Institute was not large and had only one faculty. 2) The distance from here to the railway station is 5 kilometers. 3) Does she have a visa to enter France? 4) Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are the four rules of Arithmetic. 5) Old Russia had many talented railway engineers and inventors such as Frolov, Jartsev, the Cherepanovs, Polsunov. 6) Tomorrow you will have a lecture on Chemistry instead of a seminar in History: your teacher is on business trip. He will be at the Institute on Monday. 7) Road accidents are more frequent in rainy weather. 8) An automatic engine driver is a small-size computer with transducers. 10) High-class trains like “Russia”, “Irtysh”, “Siberia” and some others have high reputation and popularity. 11) This article is about a new high-speed railway. 12) We had seats in the first coach of the suburban train. 13) The motor is small but it has high power. 14) When I was a student I had a little spare time .

Ex.9. Use the verbs to be, to have in the required tense form and translate the sentences from English into Russian .

1) In the early mornings the traffic to be not very heavy. 2) To have he got a map of the London Underground? 3) The problems discussed at the last seminar to be very interesting and the students to have a lot of questions to the teacher. 4) All the underground stations to be of the same size: 6 meters high, 100 meters long and 18 meters wide. 5) To have you got any time to help me translate this article? – Sorry, but I to be busy now, try to do it yourself. 6) The seats in the old bus to be very uncomfortable. 7) Oxford and Cambridge to have much in common so they are often called together as Oxbridge. 8) Electrons in the atom to have the negative charge. 9) If you to have no telephone at home, you can use a call box in the street. 10) The experiment showed that the assumption to be wrong. 11) Their reports at the last conference to be very long but they to have no new ideas to offer. 12) The top speed of the first steam locomotive to be 13 miles per hour 13) They to have an unpleasant voyage from New York to Liverpool because of the storm. 14) In spite of the dense fog the train to be not late. 15) It to be such a narrow road that it to be difficult for two cars to pass each other. 16) All the railwaymen to have the right of free travel by train once a year. 17 The text of the contract to be ready in an hour.). 18) Large banks usually to have branches abroad .

Ex.10. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the construction there + to be .

1) There were several vacant seats in the bus when I got into it. 2) There are a lot of goods that can be transported by air. 3) There is usually a considerable increase in passenger traffic in summer .

4) There was no chance of getting tickets for this train. 5) There will be no trains today because the railroad workers are on strike. 6) Were there any telephone calls while I was out? 7) There were many accidents on this section of the road when it was icy. 8) How many stops will there be before the train reaches its destination? 9) There is a lot of snow therefore the trains might be late. 10) The bus pulled up at the stop but to the disappointment of the people there was no room for everybody in it. 11) There is nothing better than a sea trip if you need a good rest. 12) In Britain you should always take your turn in the queue at a bus stop if there is one. 13) According to the weather forecast there will be snow tomorrow. 14) There was a terrible rush [суматоха] at the station when I came there. 15) When there were no traffic-lights at this intersection, there were a lot of accidents there. 16) There is a large garage on Seventh Street that provides work for eleven men. There is one man who meets the customers. There are two other men who take care of batteries. There is another man who washes cars. There are three other men who sell gas and oil. There is another man who repairs wheels. There are two men who work with engines and there is one man who sells tires .

There is no better place for automobile service .

Ex.11. Fill in the blanks with the verb to be in the required tense form .

1) There ___ specialized schools where you can get secondary education as well as good knowledge of English or German. 2) There ___ no bridge in this place and we took a boat to cross the river. 3) There ___ so many interesting excursions that he didn’t know which one to choose .

4) In Metro there ___ special pumps and fans that suck in the air from the street, purify it and make it warm or cool on its way to the station. 5) There ___ not enough time for us to catch the next train .

6) In the very first days of railways there ___ no signals and there ___ no need for them. 7) In Great Britain there ___ left-hand traffic and a foreign driver must be very attentive. 8) The construction of the first tunnels required much time, effort and money because there ___ no special equipment for it .

9) There ___ road works in the center streets of the city tomorrow that is why long traffic jams [дорожные пробки] are expected. 10) There ___ four pairs of sliding doors on each side of a Metro car. 11) The company closed down because there ___ not much demand for its products. 12) There ___ extra commuter trains at the next weekends .

Ex.12. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English, using the verbs to have, to be or the construction there + to be .

1) В этом журнале есть интересные статьи? – Да. Журнал очень интересный. Почитай его, если у тебя есть свободное время. 2) У Вас есть английский словарь? – Да, есть, но в нём только 1000 слов. 3) Наш институт находится недалеко от станции Метро. 4) Завтра лекции по физике не будет. Ваш преподаватель в Москве на конференции. 5) Вчера у нас была всего одна пара. 6) Какой экзамен был самым трудным для тебя? 7) В институтской библиотеке много новых книг. 8) У вас вчера был семинар по философии? 9) Тебе 20 лет? – Нет, мне будет 20 в следующем году. 10) Где ближайшая автобусная остановка? 11) В твоём диктанте было несколько ошибок. 12) У Ника есть телефон? – Да, есть. 13) Лондонский университет – самый большой ВУЗ Британии. 14) Он никогда не опаздывает на лекции и всегда очень внимательный .

Ex.13. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the tense form of the predicates in the Active Voice. Put general questions and special questions to the underlined words .

1) In Samara Metro trains run every 8 minutes. [How often...?] 2) Heavy snowstorms disorganized the movement of trains in this region. [Where…?] 3) The train will cover the distance from Moscow to St. Petersburg in 3 hours if it moves at a speed of 250 km/h. [In what case…?]

4) At this railway station the stops of the trains last only five minutes. [How many…?] 5) Tomas Bouch designed the Tay Bridge in 1878 [When…?] and people called it as one of the wonders of the world. [How…?] 6) The last train arrives at midnight. [When…?] 7) If we drive at such a speed all the time, we shall get to the village before dark. [When…?] 8) Such engineers as Frolov, Yartsev, and Polsunov made great contribution to the development of railway transport in Russia. [Who…?]

9) The airplane crosses the Atlantic Ocean in about ten hours. [What…?] 10) It takes only 35 minutes to travel by train from Britain to France. [How long…?] 11) After the war the government granted great sums of money to renew railway equipment. [What…for?] 12) In England train passengers seldom converse with their fellow-travelers even on long journeys – this is more a national custom than a matter of etiquette. [Where…?] 13) The repair of railway track usually takes place in summer. [When…?] 14) Your train will leave from platform №2 in five minutes. [What…?] Ex.14. Read the following text using the verbs given in brackets in the required tense form in the Active Voice. Put 5 questions to the text .

LILLIPUTIAN TRAIN*

One of Moscow designers* [to make – Present Indefinite] micro models of different vehicles* – this [to be – Present Indefinite] his hobby. His first model [to be – Past Indefinite] a plane; its weight [to be – Past Indefinite] 0.35 gr., it [to work – Past Indefinite] and [to make – Past Indefinite] several circuits in the air. In the last 10 years he [to construct – Past Indefinite] 8 unique working micro models. He [to make – Past Indefinite] them of wood with the help of a knife .

His collection [to include – Present Indefinite] a little locomotive and a car – 13 and 18 cm long respectively. The locomotive [to consist – Present Indefinite] of 2,566 separate parts and the car – of 1,035. It [to take – Past Indefinite] him 4 months to study the locomotive design and 15 months to build this model. The locomotive and the car [to work – Present Indefinite] like* full-size models, even down to* the gears* – including one for reverse*. There [to be – Present Indefinite] even a two-note whistle* 1 mm. long. You can control the whole operation from the locomotive .

Notes: lilliputian train – поезд-лилипут designer – конструктор vehicle – транспортное средство like – как reverse gear – шестерня заднего хода down to – вплоть до whistle – свисток Ex.15. Express the idea in the Present, Past and Future Indefinite (use the adverbials) .

1) Passengers [to cross] the railway lines by the bridge. 2) A lab assistant [to show] the equipment to the students. 3) The automobile plant [to produce] 1,000 cars daily. 4) The students [to repeat] new words before the lesson. 5) He [to have] enough time to do this work. 6) Our dean [to deliver] a course of lectures on Physics. 7) The airplane [to leave] at noon. 8) The trains [to be late] because of track repair works. 9) The buses [to run] every five minutes. 10) The mechanic from the garage [to do] simple radio repair. 11) Summer holidays [to begin] in July. 12) It [to cost] a lot of money to go to England by air. 13) Robots [to substitute] people in some monotonous operations. 14) Railway lines [to connect] all parts of this country. 15) This company [to provide] us with all the necessary equipment. 16) We [to meet] every Sunday .

Ex.16. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the tense form of the predicates in the Passive Voice. Put general questions and special questions to the underlined words .

1) The traffic was stopped by the policeman so that the ambulance could pass. [Why…?] 2) The tickets will be checked by the conductor during the journey. [When…?] 3) Since Paris is located in the center of the country [Where…?], the passengers who spend a day in the capital can reach any city the same evening. 4) The renewal of signaling equipment on all the railroads will be financed by the government. [Whom…?] 5) More than a million students were enrolled to the institutes and universities of this country last year. [When…?] 6) The air in the London Underground is changed every quarter of an hour [How often…?] and the temperature is maintained at 69-79 degrees Fahrenheit all year round. 7) The trains of the future will be operated by automatic drivers .

[Whom…?] 8) The first escalator was installed in the London Underground in 1911. [When…?] 9) The new car will be tested on the mountain roads. [Where…?] 10) A lot of roads in the USA were built by private companies [What…?] and are paid to use; they are called toll [платный] roads. 11) At the factory young workers are trained to use the new equipment. [Who…?] Ex.17. Make up sentences using the verbs in the Passive Voice .

Model: the meeting/ for some time/ to put off. The meeting was put off for some time .

1) to increase/ the number of passengers/ usually/ in summertime .

2) tomorrow/ a film about the history of the railway transport/ the students/ to show .

3) to put off/ the experiments/ after the accident/ for an indefinite time .

4) to buy/ in this travel agency/ last week/ the train tickets .

5) to equip/ with up-to-date computers and other electronic devices/ our office .

6) next week/ an interesting exhibition/ to open/ in the Hermitage .

7) by them/ in the working plan/ no changes/ to make .

8) soon after his departure/ to receive/ his letter .

9) up-to-date/ to sell/ in this shop/ computers .

10) to the chief engineer/ yesterday/ two new engineers/ to introduce .

11) to reconstruct/ next month/ the old bridge .

12) by the ticket inspector/ I/ to wake up .

Ex.18. Put the verbs in brackets into the required tense form and translate the sentences .

1) It [to take – Present Indefinite Active] passengers 7 hours to get from St.Petersburg to Moscow if they [to go – Present Indefinite Active] by overnight “Red Arrow” passenger train. 2) Hundreds of jobs [to create – Future Indefinite Passive] after the building of this plant. 3) Special equipment [to use – Present Indefinite Passive] for the construction of railways. 4) The first steam locomotive in Russia [to test – Past Indefinite Passive] in Nizhniy Tagil. 5) This [to be – Present Indefinite Active] an excellent computer which [to serve – Future Indefinite Active] you many years. 6) The first Stephenson’s locomotive [to call – Past Indefinite Passive] “The Rocket”. 7) In the past, messages from Europe to America [to send – Past Indefinite Passive] by ships. 8) Four million passengers a year [to travel – Present Indefinite Active] the Helsinki-Tallinn route. 9) All passenger coaches [to equip – Present Indefinite Passive] with electric heating system. 10) Before 1947 the British Railways [to own – Past Indefinite Passive] by four private companies. 11) In London we [to transfer – Future Indefinite Active] from the train to a bus. 12) Passengers [to ask – Past Indefinite Passive] to show their tickets .

Ex.19. Choose the correct voice form of the predicates and translate the sentences .

1) A large number of cars [parked; were parked] near the railway station. 2) The speed of Metro trains [reaches; is reached] 90 km/h. 3) This railway company [will transport; will be transported] freight only. 4) Wood [replaced; was replaced] by steel as a material for constructing passenger cars. 5) I [work; am worked] for a construction company which has a lot of contracts in other countries. 6) The windows of his car [make; are made] of unbreakable glass. 7) We [left;

were left] our car in the parking lot near the terminal. 8) Sleepers [hold; are held] the two rails at the right distance. 9) You [will meet; will be met] by an agent from the travel bureau at the airport .

10) Special railroads such as funiculars [use; are used] on steep grades in the Alps. 11) The driver [told; was told] his passengers to fasten their safety belts .

Ex.20. Change the following sentences:

a) from Active into Passive .

1) The high-speed railway line connects Paris and London. 2) Electric motors will drive the cars in the future. 3) The engineers estimated the cost of the new terminal construction. 4) I bought train tickets two days ago. 5) Radio facilitates communication with the remotest parts of the country. 6) We shall discuss their project next week. 7) The state spends large sums of money to train highly-qualified engineers. 8) The Cherepanovs constructed the first steam locomotive in Russia. 9) Ventilation provides a constant supply of fresh air in hot weather. 10) The workers laid down the railway line ahead of time. 11) On early railways people called conductors “the captain of the train”. 12) Our scientists solve many important problems. 13) We shall study a book about the mechanization of transportation next term. 14) The engineers increased the speed of the new electric locomotive. 15) They obtained similar results in all the experiments .

b) from Passive into Active .

1) Several cities will be linked by this railway line. 2) This river is crossed by 29 bridges. 3) The out-of-date computers were replaced by modern electronic machines. 4) The new project was given much attention by all the newspapers. 5) General engineering subjects are included in the program of the first-year students. 6) The course of lectures in Physics will be delivered by our dean. 7) Entrance exams are taken in summer. [applicants] 8) These motors were produced at our plant. 9) I was given an interesting article to read. [my friend] 9) Houses, bridges, railways are built by civil engineers. 10) Energy is produced by power stations. 11) John will be appointed monitor of the group. [the dean] 12) The Earth is surrounded by atmosphere. 13) The lecturer was listened to with great attention. [all the students] 14) A profound study of theory will be accompanied by practical training .

Ex.21. Find grammar mistakes in the following sentences and correct them. The number of mistakes is pointed out in brackets .

1) When our train will start? [1] 2) The first automatic driver tested under the Moscow Underground. [2] 3) There is 2 types bus stops in Britain – the compulsory stop and the request stop. [2] 4) We were inform of our train delay. [1] 5) How was calculated the distance to Mars? [1]

6) Where did he bought the airplane tickets? [1] 7) The length the Great Trans-Siberian Railway are 8,000 km. [2] 8) Nowadays all the rail are make of steel. [2] 9) There are 3,000 Americans who likes to collect antique cars. [1] 10) Does the railways play decisive role in the transportation of freight? [1] 11) The crew of the plane consist in four people [2]. 12) Electrical equipment will produced in the France. [2] 13) Was anybody advise you to enter in the Institute? [2] 14) He return at home late often. [3] 15) A lot of cars was parked in front the private law firm. [2] 16) How often are trains run in our Metro? [1] 17) Werner von Siemens was constructed first experimental electric locomotive. [2] 18) What the equipment do this plant produces? [2] 19) There are 12 bridges and viaducts at these railway line. [2] 20) The profession of an engineer require special training. [1] .

Ex.22. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English .

1) Лекция начнется в 8 часов, не опаздывай. 2) Все абитуриенты были разделены на три группы. 3) В какой аудитории вы обычно занимаетесь? 4) В следующем году количество студентов нашей академии будет увеличено. 5) Петр не сдал экзамен по иностранному языку, так как пропустил много занятий. 6) Новая станция метро была пущена в эксплуатацию в прошлом году. 7) Сколько студентов вашей группы получают стипендию? 8) Когда ты поступил в институт? 9) Двух первокурсников пригласили принять участие в научной конференции. 10) Я буду учиться на заочном факультете, так как не хочу бросать [to give up] работу. 11) Этот поезд останавливается только на крупных железнодорожных станциях. 12) В нашем институте есть несколько компьютерных классов, которые оборудованы самыми современными электронными устройствами [a device] .

TEXT A Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary .

SAMARA STATE RAILWAY ACADEMY

The Samara State Railway Academy is one of the youngest state higher schools in the Samara Region. It trains qualified railway specialists for the Central European part of Russia. The Academy has a number of branches in such towns as Ufa, Orenburg, Orsk, and Rusayevka .

In 2003 our higher school celebrated its 30th anniversary. In 1973 the first day-time applicants took entrance examinations. At that time there was only one faculty with 75 students. In 1975 it was divided into two faculties: Railway Construction and Railway Operation. With the railway transport development and modernization more and more qualified engineers of various specialities were required, that is why the number of students was increased .

At present about 10,000 students get higher education at day-time and extra-mural departments .

Training is provided on 14 specializations such as: Railway Operation; Railway Construction, Track and Track Facilities; Automation, Telemechanics and Communication; Diesel and Electric Locomotives; Railway Cars; Accountancy and Audit; Power Supply; Railway Economics; Track Construction and Maintenance Machines; Information Systems; Tunnels and Bridges; Electric Public Transport. Students of the extra-mural department have the opportunity to get higher education combining their work with study. They are provided with paid annual leaves of 30 to 40 days for attending lectures, taking tests and exams; as well as a 4 month leave for preparing their graduation projects .

Entrance to the Railway Academy is by competitive examinations, which can be taken by anyone between the ages of 17 to 35 who has finished the secondary, vocational or technical school .

Applicants are required to take 3 entrance exams such as Russian Language and Literature (composition), Physics, Mathematics. Some applicants are admitted on the basis of their results in the unified state examinations for the secondary school .

The complete course of studies at our higher school lasts 5 or 6 years for the day-time and extramural students respectively. The academic year is divided into 2 terms: from September to January and from February to July. Tests and exams are taken at the end of each term. During the period of learning every student must pass 35-40 term exams, not counting written and oral tests. If the results of the examinations are good, students receive grants which are given by the state or the enterprise which has sent him or her to study. Those students who progress successfully and combine studies with scientific-technical activities are paid 25% more. Twice a year there are vacations – two weeks in winter and two months in summer. Once a year every student can get a free railway ticket for traveling to any part of the country. Comfortable hostels are provided for those students who come for studying from other places .

The work-load of a student, including his individual out-of-classes work, is planned to take up approximately 50-55 hours a week. The first- and second-year students study such general engineering subjects as Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Technical Drawing, and a number of others. The study of foreign languages is also included in the program. Moreover, the students of our Academy have a good chance to receive deep knowledge of English or German at language courses .

In the third year students begin to study specialized subjects; special attention is paid to the development of students' abilities and skills in their chosen speciality. In the course of training, practical work occupies an exceptionally important place. Students have practical training in specially equipped labs and workshops and on the railway. The final year is devoted to working on a graduation project which is submitted to the State Examination Commission .

After the graduation from our Academy every student receives a diploma which gives him/her the right to work as an engineer, an economist or a book-keeper. For those students who want to continue their education this higher school has a post-graduate course .

Ex.23. Agree or disagree with the statements given below and add something to develop

the situation. Use the following introductory phrases:

That's right I can't agree with you You are partly right To my mind That's true Nothing of the kind Not quite As far as I know 1 quite agree with you You’re wrong In fact It goes without saying I think that's nonsense I don’t know exactly

1) You can get higher education at vocational schools, technical schools and universities. 2) You like to take exams. 3) It was easy for you to enter the Institute. 4) You took three entrance exams. 5) Our Academy is headed by Rector. 6) There is only a day-time department at this Academy .

7) Our Academy has a large network of branches in the USA and Great Britain. 8) Students of our higher school are required to attend lectures and to miss seminars. 9) The students are provided with all the necessary books free of charge. 10) Such subjects as Technical Drawing, Physics, Literature and Music are included in the program of freshmen. 11) All the students of our higher school study two foreign languages: English and German. 12) English is your favorite subject. 13) The academic year is divided into two terms and at the end of each term students submit their graduation projects. 14) The laboratories of our Institute are equipped with out-of-date broken computers. 15) The course of studies lasts ten years. 15) You must combine work with study because you are an extra-mural student .

Ex.24. Using the questions given below, make up stories on the following topics:

A) The school I went to

1) What school did you go to? [secondary school; gymnasium; vocational school; technical school; lyceum; specialized English school]

2) In what age did you begin to attend it?

3) Where is it situated?

4) What compulsory and optional subjects did you study at your school?

5) What were your favorite subjects?

6) How many times a week did you have your English lessons?

7) What did you do during your English lessons?

8) What was your mark in English?

9) Who was your favorite teacher?

10) What do you think are the characteristics of an ideal /bad teacher?

11) What exams did you pass at school?

12) What did you like and dislike about your school?

B) Entering the Academy

1) When did you first start thinking about entering a higher educational school?

2) Did anybody advise you or was it your own choice?

3) What made you choose the Railway Academy rather than some other higher school? 4) Do your parents approve your choice?

5) How many entrance exams did you pass?

6) What marks did you get in Physics and Mathematics?

7) How did you prepare for the exams? [You attended the fitting school – подготовительные курсы; your teacher helped you; you read a lot of books yourself or you didn't prepare for your exams at all.]

8) Were you afraid of taking exams?

9) Was the competition intense?

10) What was the most difficult subject for you to take?

11) How does it feel to be a student?

C) You are a freshman now

1) Do you like being a student?

2) Was it difficult for you to get accustomed [привыкать] to the system of lectures and seminars after the school system of classes?

3) What do you find more useful: lectures of seminars?

4) Do yon always take notes of lectures?

5) Is it difficult or easy for you to follow the lectures?

6) Some lectures are certainly more interesting than others. What does interest depend on? [It depends on the subject of the lecture or the personality of the lecturer]

7) Why are some lectures boring [скучный]? [Some lectures are boring because: the subject is boring; the subject is of no importance to you; the subject is too difficult for you to master; you find it hard to concentrate; you are not interested in the subject; you are not yet accustomed to listening to lectures every day; you get tired easily; the lecturer's manner of speech is monotonous; the lecturer speaks too fast for you to make notes; the lecturer gives no original information; the lecturer's arguments are too complicated for you.]

8) What subjects are included in the first-year program at your faculty?

9) What subject is the most interesting/ the least interesting; the one you think the most important/ the least important; the one you find the most difficult/ the least difficult?

10) What must you do to pass your winter exams successfully?

11) What marks do you expect to get?

12) How much time do you spend to prepare your homework?

13) Do you have a lot of spare time?

14) What do you usually do during your spare time?

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Ex.26. Here are the answers. Write the questions .

1) Almost all the students. 2) During the entrance examinations. 3) Either today or tomorrow. 4) Very difficult. 5) English. 6) At the Railway Academy. 7) I have nothing against it. 8) It is out of question. 9) Dean of our faculty. 10) At the next lesson .

Ex.27. Choose and use. Work in pairs. Make up your own dialogues using the given phrases .

1. How’s life?

a) Nothing to boast of. b) It’s none of your business. c) Nothing to look at. d) So-so? e) Thank you, I’m fine. f) It is too good to be true. g) Who cares

2. Excuse me, how can I get to the University?

a) Five stops from here. b) It’s far from here. c) Don’t hurry. d) You’d better take the trolley-bus .

e) Leave me alone .

3. Excuse me, where is the nearest Metro station?

a) Unfortunately I don’t remember. b) It must be somewhere about. c) It’s over there, on the left .

d) You will go far. e) I’ll see you off if you don’t mind .

4. It was a pleasure to talk to you .

a) What do you mean? b) I’m sorry to hear it. c) The more the better. d) The pleasure was mine .

e) You are hard to please. f) Indeed?

5. Excuse my being late .

a) See you later. b) Glad to hear it. c) Better late than never. d) You are welcome. e) No need to be sorry. f) It is inexcusable! g) How could you!

6. What do you do?

a) I’m doing well, thank you. b) Nothing to boast of. c) I’m a first-year student. d) It’s none of your business .

7. Thank you for your help .

a) Never mind. b) It was a pleasure for me. c) Glad to hear it. d) Thank you for coming. e) I have nothing to do with it. f) I can’t believe my ears .

8. I’m taking my exam in two days .

a) Take care. b) So long. c) Good luck! d) Let’s hope for the best. e) Nothing good will come of it. f) There is nothing to be done. g) Put it out of your head. h) Are you sure? i) That doesn’t interest me .

TEXT В Read the text filling in the blanks with the prepositions if necessary. Translate it without a dictionary and find at least 10 differences between our Academy and Cambridge (do it in written form) .

CAMBRIDGE

Cambridge is one ___ the two main universities ___ England located ___ the Cam River. It was founded ___ the beginning ___ the 12th century. Until 1871 Cambridge University was exclusively ___ men. Nowadays University consists ___ 24 different colleges, including four colleges ___ women. The oldest college was founded ___ 1284, and the most recent is Robinson College which was opened ___ 1977 .

The head ___ the University is the chancellor who is elected for life. The teachers are commonly called «dons» and «tutors». The University developed its own system, which is called “a system ___ individual tuition”. Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course ___ studies. The tutor plans the student's work and once a week the student goes ___ his tutor to discuss his work ___ him. Besides, the student attends lectures. The course ___ studies lasts 4 years .

The academic year is divided ___ 3 terms. The students study Natural and Technical Sciences, Law, History, Languages, Geography and a number ___ other subjects. After 3 years ___ study a student may proceed (получить учёную степень) to a Bachelor's degree and later to the degrees ___ Master and Doctor .

Students are required to wear gowns (мантия) ___ lectures, ___ the University library, ___ the street ___ the evening and ___ official visits. All the students must pay ___ their education, exams, books, laboratories, hostel, the use ___ libraries, etc. Not many children ___ working class families are able to get higher education, as the cost is high. The cost ___ education depends ___ the college and speciality .

A number ___ great men, well-known scientists and writers studied ___ Cambridge. Among them are Erasmus (the great Dutch scholar); Bacon (the philosopher); Milton and Byron (the poets);

Cromwell (the soldier); Newton and Darwin (the scientists) .

TEXT С Read the text and find answers to the given questions .

STUDENTS' LIFE

1) What are students “sconced” [штрафовать] for?

In the old days when Colleges were religious institutions the students were clergymen [священник], and their life was much more strict and disciplined than now. Friendship with young ladies was not allowed and the only women inside the college were washerwomen. The legend is that these had to be “old and ugly” .

The students eat their meals in the College dining-hall. At some Colleges there is an interesting tradition. It is known as “sconcing” [наложение штрафа на студентов за нарушение правил]. If a student comes late to dinner or he is not correctly dressed, or if he breaks one of the laws of behavior, then the senior student orders him to be “sconced”. A large silver cup, known as «sconce cup», filled with beer is brought and placed in front of him and he must drink it in one attempt without taking the cup from his lips (it holds two and a half pints, or 1,5 liters). If he can do it, then the senior student pays for it, if not, the cup is passed round and the student who has been “sconced” must pay for it .

2) What do the so-called “Bulldogs” do if a student whom they come up to runs away?

The students can stay out till twelve o'clock. Each evening a Proctor [административное лицо, в обязанности которого входит надзор за поведением студентов и наложение дисциплинарных взысканий] with two assistants, called “Bulldogs”, walks about the town keeping an eye on the students' behavior. If he sees a student breaking a rule he will come to him and say: “Are you a member of the University, sir?”, and if a student runs away, then “Bulldogs” run after him and if they catch him (they are chosen, it is said, because they are good runners), fine him .

Apart from fines a student may be dismissed from the University for one term .

3) In what case is “Boredom Button” pushed?

In most schools and universities teachers give their students marks for their work. All students hate a “D” and are happy if their teacher gives them an “A”. Now at one American University both the students AND the lecturers must work hard if they want good marks .

During classes the students give their lecturers marks. Each desk is equipped with a “Boredom button”. If a student thinks that the lecture is boring he can press the special button. When he does this, a light at the back of the classroom is switched on. There is one light there for every student. The lecturer can look at the lights and he can see if his students think the class is interesting or boring. The lecturer can't see which students are pressing the buttons. So, the students can be completely honest. If too many lights come at the back of his class, a lecturer knows that he must do something quickly and make the class more interesting .

LESSON TWO TRAVELING BY TRAIN

Ex.1. Practice the reading .

-ture, -sure lecture, future, departure, mixture, expenditure, structure, puncture, fracture, manufacture, creature, fixture, curvature, feature, conjuncture, adventure, moisture;

measure, pleasure, leisure, closure, disclosure, embrasure, treasure, treasury;

BUT: sure, ensure, insurance .

ea increase, conceal, mean, defeat, eager, treaty, feasible, heater, lead, reasonable, heaver, release, dean, dealer, leave, easy, beacon, lease, meaning, reach, treatment, weak .

BUT: overhead, headway, tread, ready, steady, spread, instead, treadle, measure, pleasure, weather, meant, heavy; break; really, create, realize .

pay attention to the letters which are not pronounced:

half, walk, talk, should, could, would, hour, high, height, straight, frighten, slightly, sight, alight, fight, might, midnight, freight, retighten, ought, weight, design, benign; sign, alignment, consignment, assign, what, wheel, wharf, whistle, wrong, wrist, write, wrench, shipwreck, deck, click, rack, reckon, stock, cockpit, know, knot, knock, knuckle, climb, comb .

Words and word combinations to be remembered

1) to appear – появляться; казаться

2) to approach – приближаться, подходить

3) to arrive – прибывать arrival – прибытие

4) average – средний

5) berth – спальная полка (в вагоне) lower berth – нижняя полка upper berth – верхняя полка

6) bridge – мост

7) to call – называть; вызывать; звонить so-called – так называемый

8) carriage – вагон

9) to carry – перевозить, транспортировать; нести

10) to change – менять, изменять(ся) to change (trains) – делать пересадку change – изменение; пересадка; сдача

11) compartment – купе

12) to connect – соединять, связывать connection – соединение, связь

13) crew – бригада, экипаж locomotive crew – локомотивная бригада train crew – поездная бригада

14) to depart – отправляться departure – отправление

15) destination – место назначения

16) discount – скидка

17) fare(s) – плата за проезд to pay the fare(s) – оплачивать проезд, брать билет(ы)

18) fast – быстрый, скорый

19) heavy – тяжёлый; интенсивный, сильный

20) to improve – улучшать, усовершенствовать improvement – улучшение, усовершенствование

21) junction – железнодорожный узел, узловая станция

22) necessary – необходимый

23) to notice – замечать notice – объявление

24) porter – носильщик

25) to propose – предлагать

26) to serve – служить, обслуживать service – услуга, обслуживание; перевозки

27) suburb – пригород suburban train – пригородный поезд, электричка

28) suitable – подходящий

29) terminal (terminus) – вокзал, конечная станция

30) ticket – билет single ticket – билет “туда” (билет в одном направлении) return ticket – билет “туда и обратно”

31) traffic – движение, перевозки traffic frequency – частота движения traffic jam – пробка на дороге

32) to try – пытаться, пробовать

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Translate the sentences given below from Russian into English

1) Существуют различные типы пассажирских вагонов: общие, плацкартные, спальные .

2) Ты можешь подвезти меня до вокзала? 3) Поезд должен отправиться через пять минут. 4) Вы можете сдать свои вещи в камеру хранения. 5) Электричка была переполнена, поэтому нам пришлось ждать следующий поезд. 6) Мы заказали билеты по телефону за неделю до отъезда. 7) Вы не поможете положить вещи на полку? 8) Наш поезд должен прибыть через час, поэтому у нас есть время, чтобы перекусить. 9) Мы опоздали на последнюю электричку, потому что застряли в пробке на дороге. 10) Летом невозможно купить билет на этот поезд в день отправления. 11) В купе спального вагона есть две нижние полки и две верхние откидные полки. 12) Ты дал носильщику «на чай»? 13) Билетов в купейный вагон не было, поэтому нам пришлось ехать в плацкартном вагоне. 14) Это поезд повышенной комфортности, поэтому билеты такие дорогие .

Ex.4. One of the words in the following sentences should not be there. Find the odd word and replace it by a more suitable one. Be very attentive!

Model: The departure and arrival time of this train is very expensive for passengers. The departure and arrival time of this train is very convenient for passengers .

1) If you want to miss the train you'd better take a taxi. 2) He left for St.Petersburg by the 8.30 train because he wanted to depart there early in the morning. 3) What platform will the berth for London depart from? 4) All the commuter trains are equipped with dining cars. 5) Moscow is a major transport junction where 15 railroads meet at 10 airports and over 300 long-distance and 2,000 suburban trains depart daily. 6) All the passengers were invited to see the train off and take their seats. 7) We got off the train and asked the locomotive crew to carry our luggage to the bus stop. 8) Various discounts are offered for both single and one-way tickets. 9) The suitcase was so light that Robert had to change it from hand to hand all the time. 10) In the day coach there are nine four-berth compartments for passengers, a compartment for the conductors, two toilet rooms and two vestibules. 11) On the first railways there were no conductors and an engine-driver collected the passengers’ luggage himself. 12) Thanks to wide doors in Metro cars passengers can quickly get on and off the station. 13) The reason I didn't buy the car was that I thought it was too comfortable. 14) If you buy a train ticket on the day of departure, you'll have to pay some extra money. 15) Pocket-size dictionaries are heavy for traveling purposes .

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Translate the following sentences from English into Russian .

1) There is so heavy traffic on this street during the rush hours that it is faster to ride a bike .

2) In some trains of high comfort passengers can order dinner or supper directly to his compartment. 3) In Europe double-deck passenger coaches are used in four- or five-car sets on suburban lines where traffic is very heavy. 4) The trains of Denver’s commuter network transport one million passengers a day but demand is at least three times that number. 5) It is more convenient to carry these goods by lorry than by rail. 6) This train is equipped with plush comfortable seats of an aircraft type and the time of its departure is very convenient for passengers. 7) You will find all the necessary information about the train movement in the railway-guide. 8) The diesel locomotive is not connected to the contact wire, like the electric locomotive, so it is especially suitable for shunting works. 9) In April 1998 there was a 300 km traffic jam on the N4 motorway [the main road from London to Wales] at the end of the Easter holidays. 10) The high-speed train running between Hiroshima and Kokura was entered in the Guinness Book of Records for the highest average speed – 261.8 km/h .

Ex.6. Choose the correct word and translate the sentences .

1) Passengers are required to show [passports; driver’s licenses; tickets] to conductors .

2) There is a [poster; advertisement; paper; notice] on the wall saying “Private Property. No Parking.”

3) It is so [dangerous; convenient; expensive; interesting] to have your own motor car because you don’t have to rely on the public transport .

4) Railway carriages that serve as restaurants are called [luggage vans; dining cars; passenger coaches; open-type cars] .

5) If you are going abroad it’s [convenient; suitable; necessary] to have an entrance visa .

6) Various [subjects; locomotive crews; services] are proposed for passengers in high-class trains such as interurban telephone calls, branch press, medicare sets, food and security .

7) If you walk to work you will save $5 a week on bus [fares; traffic jams; drivers] .

8) We [were late; changed; arrived; departed] at the airport in time to register and weigh our luggage .

9) When her car broke down, she had to [catch; take; transfer; miss] a taxi .

10) For the passengers’ [change; convenience; departure] the compartments of a sleeping car are equipped with mirrored sliding doors, loudspeakers, collapsible tables, ceiling lamps and wall lamps .

11) In New York a passenger may go by Metro all day long for the same fare, if he only changes [carriages; compartments; luggage; trains] but does not go out of the station .

12) The first bus developed by Shillibear [noticed; appeared; departed; disappeared] in London in 1861 .

Ex.7. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions if necessary .

l) Nobody took notice ___ his late arrival. 2) We were waiting ___ the train arrival ___ the platform. 3) You can’t go ___ train ___ a ticket. 4) What is the fare ___ Washington ___ Montreal?

5) When we entered ___ the car, we opened the window because it was very stuffy ___ the compartment. 6) I was lucky to get tickets ___ the fast train ___ Moscow. 7) My first impressions of England are connected ___ rain and fog. 8) Several passers-by stopped to look ___ the strange bicycle out of curiosity. 9) The fare on the London Underground depends ___ the distance you travel. 10) ___ the time-table, the train is due to arrive ___ 12.30. 11) She seems to be ___ a hurry. It’s inconvenient to speak ___ her now. 12) You need not leave ___ the airport so early; I will give you a lift. 13) Passengers can buy tickets ___ the day ___ departure or reserve them ___ advance .

14). Two or more locos can be coupled together and operated ___ a single locomotive crew. 15) ___ the USA the average speed ___ trains ___ some lines reaches 90 miles (146 km) per hour. 16) There are waiting rooms ___ all railway stations where passengers may rest until it is time to board ____ the train. 17) Don’t bother! I’ll pay ___ all fares. 18) I am looking ___ my holiday. 19) I looked ___ my passport everywhere but couldn’t find it. 20) In the United States traveling ___ long-distance trains is not so popular as in many other parts ___ the world. 21) I want three first-class tickets ___ the “Red Arrow” ___ Friday ___ a separate compartment. 22) Is there a dining car ___ this train?

23) Which platform does the train ___ Paris leave ___? 24) There are 5 minutes left before the train departs ___ Manchester ___ Liverpool .

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Ex.8. Read the following sentences replacing the Russian words by their English equivalents. Be careful with Grammar .

1) In the USA some trains have special business купе for one person equipped with a toilet, a wash-basin, a откидная полка and arm-chairs; купе for two persons without удобства and large sleeping купе for the family. 2) The information about the номер платформы and times when trains прибывать and отправляться may be получать in the справочное бюро. 3) If you take носильщик to carry your багаж, it is appropriate to давать чаевые. 4) If you drive быстро, you добираться до the village in two hours. 5) When we заходить the compartment нижние полки had been already occupied by a woman with a child. She asked us to take верхние полки. 6) To добраться до New Orleans we will have to делать пересадку in Birmingham. 7) In Britain there are three types of trains: скорый intercity trains, поезда, идущие со всеми остановками and пригородные поезда .

8) One of the first things a foreigner замечать about the British railways is the platforms. They are almost on a level with the floor of the вагон. This makes it easier for passengers to заходить и выходить из вагона with their багаж. 9) Last year плата за проезд в поезде more than doubled because of inflation. 10) This train will proceed to its место назначения without any stops. 11) In the USA there is a special скидка for those passengers who buy билеты туда и обратно .

12) They got stuck in a пробка на дороге on the way to the airport. 13) Foreign tourists are provided by AMTRAK [“American Track” – the major passenger railroad company] with the railway билеты for 14, 21 and 60 days, which give them the right to ездить на любом поезде in any купе and делать пересадку in any place and at any time .

Ex.9. Complete the text with suitable words .

When I got to the railway ___ I saw a really long queue at the ticket ___. So I got my ___ from the ticket machine. Then I ran to the ___ and got ___ the train. The journey was fine. I managed to get some sandwiches and some tea from the ___ car. My train ___ in Edinburgh with a thirty-minute delay. The result was that I was ___ for the meeting and I didn’t ___ the train home. I had to spend the night at the railway hotel .

GRAMMAR REVIEW

(Modal verbs and their equivalents;

Present, Past, Future Continuous Active and Passive) Ex.10. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the modal verbs must, can, may, need, should .

1) Drivers of express and fast trains must have a rest after 3 hours of work. 2) You should not ride a motorbike without a helmet. 3) You need not hurry up; you may take a later suburban train. 4) What can you do while traveling by train? You can read a novel or do a crossword puzzle, you can just stare out of the window or talk to your fellow-traveler, you can sit back and listen to the clicking of the carriage over the rails. 5) The tickets should not be thrown away as inspectors may check them during the trip. 6) Passengers should not walk across the railway lines; there is a footbridge at the end of the platform. 7) If you are traveling by air, you mustn’t carry anything in your luggage that can be used as a weapon, such as a knife or a pair of scissors .

8) You need not go to the railway station to buy tickets because you can book them at the nearest travel agency. 9) The Trans-European expresses are equipped with interurban telephones through which the traveler can contact office or home. 10) In Metro when the passengers get on the escalator, they should stand on the right so that people who hurry can run by on the left. 11) He can’t leave the country until the police return his passport .

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Ex.12. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the equivalents of the modal verbs. If possible, replace equivalents by the appropriate modal verbs .

1) If you park in no-parking zone, the traffic police can tow away your car. You will not be able to pick it up until you pay a fine. 2) If you buy railway tickets in advance, you have to pay some extra money. 3) Passengers were not allowed to get off the carriage because the stop of the train lasted only three minutes. 4) Since the tape-recorder is still under guarantee, I will not have to pay for the repairs. 5) At the large terminal passengers are able to book hotel, transport, tickets for sporting and cultural events; to telephone or send mail to anywhere in the world; to hold a business meeting; to obtain information of interest; to buy goods they need and so on. 6) The staff is not allowed to use office telephones for private calls. 7) I will have to pay 50 rubles extra for my luggage because it is overweight. 8) Sixty extra police officers were to control the traffic outside the stadium. 9) If the weather is cloudy, passengers have to sit at the airport and wait for their plane for hours. 10) On weekdays cars are not allowed to enter the centre of the city. 11) In England the speed of the first cars was not to surpass four miles per hour. 12) This car is automatic, so you do not have to change gear all the time. 13) We were not able to repair the car ourselves and had to take it to the auto-service station. 14) Here all the workers are to wear protective clothing. 15) Do you have to change buses when you are going to work? 16) We were to leave for England on Saturday but because of the delay with our visas, we had to book tickets for Monday. 17) We are not able to wait for them any longer, we are to ring them up and find out what has happened .

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The results of the test: If your score is 10 correct answers, you are doing just great; 8-9 stand for good knowledge; 6-7 mean you have some problems; if the number of your correct answers is less than 6, go and learn the rules .

Ex.14. Match two sentences to make mini dialogues. Work in pairs. Pay attention to the modal verbs and their equivalents .

–  –  –

Ex.15. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English paying attention to the modal

verbs and such expressions as:

It should (must, can) be said that…– Следует (необходимо, можно) сказать, что… It should (must, can) be mentioned that…– Следует (необходимо, можно) упомянуть, что… It should (must, can) be noted that…– Следует (необходимо, можно) отметить, что… It should (must, can) be stressed that…– Следует (необходимо, можно) подчеркнуть, что…

1) Следует отметить, что людям в больших городах приходится тратить много денег на оплату проезда в общественном транспорте. 2) Вам придётся поторопиться, если вы хотите успеть на поезд. 3) Он не смог завести [to start] машину. 4) Когда должен был прибыть поезд? 5) Ему приходится ездить в командировки [to travel on business] каждый месяц .

6) Тебе следует быть более внимательным. 7) Он сможет быстро отремонтировать [to repair] компьютер. 8) Нам пришлось взять такси. 9) Он не смог принять участие в конференции .

10) Роберт должен уехать в Лондон сегодня вечером. 11) Ты сможешь проводить меня?

12) Необходимо сказать, что если ты хочешь говорить по-английски, тебе придется много [hard] работать. 13) Следует отметить, что любой инженер может дать тебе информацию по этому вопросу. 14) Я надеюсь, они смогли купить билет на последний поезд. 15) Ты можешь идти, я закончу работу сам. 16) Мы должны были встретиться на станции в 6 часов вечера .

17) Следует подчеркнуть, что она была вынуждена рассказать все полицейскому инспектору. 18) Вы не должны прекращать работу, пока [till] вы её не закончите .

19) Следует отметить, что объявления на доске должны быть написаны заглавными буквами [in capital letters] .

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*The results of the test: If your score is 15-16 correct answers, you are doing just great; 11-14 stand for good knowledge; 7-10 mean you have some problems; if the number of your correct answers is less than 7, go and learn the rules .

Ex.17. Present Indefinite Active or Present Continuous Active? Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense form .

1) Many foreign tourists [to travel] in our country at present. 2) A person with a good education usually [to get] a better job. 3) The train is late because the workers [to repair] the track. 4) As a rule the workers [to repair] the track in summer. 5) Look! Two aircrafts [to fly] in the dark sky. 6) This fast train always [to arrive] on schedule. 7) This section of track [to need] reconstruction. 7) The problem of ecology [to become] one of the most important problems for mankind now. 8) Englishmen very seldom [to talk] on the Underground. They [to prefer] to read newspapers. 9) My TV set [to work] better now because we have installed the external antenna. 10) I can’t talk to you because I [to hurry]. 11) The phone [to ring]. Can you answer it? 12) The arrow of compass always [to point] to the North. 13) Nowadays the railways in the USA [to transport] only 0.6 per cent of passengers. 14) … all these passengers [to wait] for the suburban train arrival? 15) … you often [to receive] letters from your former group-mates?

16) Please, don’t make much noise. The students [to write] a test. 17) … he usually [to buy] one-way or round trip tickets? 18) What berth … you [to prefer] to travel by? 19) Where is John? – He [to meet] his friends at the airport. 20) What platform …our train [to depart] from? 21) What … you [to look for]? – I [to look for] my umbrella. Look out of the window, it [to rain] cats and dogs .

Ex.18. Past Indefinite Active or Past Continuous Active? Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense form .

ON THE PLATFORM

The train [to stop] at a small station. A passenger [to look out] of the window and [to see] two women who [to sell] cakes. The man [to want] to buy a cake. The women [to stand] rather far from the carriage. The man [to call] a boy, who [to walk] on the platform near the carriage and [to ask] him: “How much does the cake cost?” “Three pence, sir,” – [to answer] the boy. The man [to give] him sixpence and [to say] to him: “Bring me a cake, and with the other three pence buy one for yourself.” Some minutes later the boy [to return]. He [to eat] the cake. He [to give] the man three pence change and [to say]: “There was only one cake, sir.” Ex.19. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay particular attention to the tense form of the predicate and to the prepositions in bold type .

1) You are being looked for. Go home. 2) The speaker was being listened to very attentively and nobody noticed me. 3) She can’t dance when she is being looked at. 4) The new exhibition is being talked about a lot. 5) I was asked what was being built in that street .

6) He suddenly realized that he was being laughed at. 7) When she entered the classroom, the last students were being examined there. 8) He knew he was being watched. 9) The mail is being looked through. There may be something for you there too. 9) The examination papers are being checked at the moment. 10) I don’t have my car today because it is being repaired .

11) When I came to Leningrad in 1957, the first underground line was still being built. 12) Are they ready with the parcel? – No, it is still being packed. 13) A new railway line is being constructed across the desert now .

Ex.20. Answer the following questions, using the Passive Voice and the word combinations in brackets .

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Ex.21. Read and translate the following sentences. State the voice and tense form of the predicates .

1) The program of railway reforms is being implemented now in Russia. Under this program suburban and regional passenger services will be financed from local budgets. At the same time the government promised to fund inter-city passenger service. 2) The car was moving very fast and the traffic cop stopped it for speeding. 3) Newspaper correspondents arrived at the aviation plant when the new passenger airplane was being tested .

4) The trains that go to and from London are very crowded at the times when people are traveling to work, since about a million people work in London but live in its suburbs. 5) The business day was in high gear [to be in high gear – быть в полном разгаре]: the mail was being looked through, the documents were being typed, letters were being answered, and talks were being hold. 6) The bridge, which is being built now, will be used for the movement of both road and railway traffic. 7) Automobiles were rushing in both directions and it was impossible to cross the street. 8) The train is being delayed because of track repair work .

9) The policeman stopped a man and asked: “Why are you crossing the street in the wrong place?”

10) As we were going along the track, we saw a group of workers who were discussing something .

11) The media, such as radio and television, tell us what is happening in the world. 12) If passengers want something to eat or drink while they are waiting for their trains they can go to the refreshment room. 13) The construction of this high-speed line is being actively supported by the government because the development of heavy industry in this region requires reliable and speedy railway traffic .

Ex.22. Put the verbs in brackets into the required tense forms .

1) We [to arrive – Past Indefinite Active] at the railway station when the train [to approach – Past Continuous Active] the platform. 2) The overall control of the system [to do – Present Continuous Passive] by computers. 3) Can you tell me who [to sit – Present Continuous Active] next to you? 4) He [to drive – Past Continuous Active] home when he [to hear – Past Indefinite Active] the news on the radio. 5) A lot of people [to wait – Past Continuous Active] for the bus arrival at the stop. 6) At present 2,500 km of high-speed lines [to construct – Present Continuous Passive] in Europe and Asia. 7) You [to catch – Future Indefinite Active] the train, if you [to hurry – Present Indefinite Active] up. 8) Steel rails [to use – Past Indefinite Passive] in the USA for the first time in 1863. 9) The experiment [to be – Past Indefinite Active] very interesting, it [to watch – Past Continuous Passive] with great attention. 10) Competition between transport modes [to intensify – Present Continuous Active] now. 11) The guide [to speak – Present Indefinite Active] English, German and Spanish, but he [to speak – Future Continuous Active] Spanish this afternoon because most of the visitors [to be – Present Indefinite Active] from Spain .

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*The results of the test: If your score is 14-15 correct answers, you are doing just great; 11-13 stand for good knowledge; 8-10 mean you have some problems; if the number of your correct answers is less than 8, go and learn the rules .

Ex.24. Put questions to the underlined words .

1) The “Repin” train departs from St.Petersburg’s Finlandsky terminal. [What…?] 2) The cars may be parked here after 5 p.m. [When…?] 3) Long steel bars on which the trains run are called the rails. [What…?] 4) The accident happened on the bridge. [Where…?] 5) Our train is standing at the platform №4 ready to leave. 6) Express trains stop only at large stations on their way. [What…?]

7) We were going to the railway station along the railway track. [Who…? Where…?] 8) The plant will produce a new model of the car next year. [When…?] 9) Telegraph cables are usually laid under the ground. [Where…?] 10) The plane was flying so low that we could see the pilot. [What height…?] 11) There are discounts only for return tickets. [What…?] 12) No planes took off on that day because of low clouds. [Why…?] 13) In Britain people drive on the left-hand side. [What country…?] 14) Passengers should keep their tickets till the end of the trip. [How long…?]

15) Automobile companies are working now at the development of an electric super car. [What…?]

16) Fares are being collected by a driver himself. [Whom…?]

–  –  –

Several years ago I arrived in New York, where I was to change trains and take a sleeper. There were crowds of people on the platform, and they were all trying to get into the long sleeper train, which was already crowded. I asked the young man in the booking office if I could have a sleepingberth and he answered: “No”. I went off and asked another local official if I could have some poor little corner somewhere in a sleeping car, but he interrupted me angrily saying: “No, you can’t, every corner is full. Now do not bother me any more” and he turned his back and walked off. I felt so hurt that I said to my companion: “If these people knew who I was, they….” But my companion stopped me there: “Don’t talk such nonsense,” he said, “if they knew who you were, do you think it would help you to get a vacant seat in a train which has no vacant seats in it?” This did not improve my mood at all but then I noticed that the porter of a sleeping car was looking at me. I saw the expression of his face suddenly change. He whispered to the conductor, pointing to me and I realized I was being talked about. Then the conductor came forward, his face all politeness .

“Can I be of any service to you?” he asked. “Do you want a place in a sleeping car?” “Yes,” I said. “I will be very grateful to you if you can give me a place, anything will do.” “We have nothing left except the big family compartment,” the conductor continued, “with two berths and a couple of arm-chairs in it. It is entirely at your disposal. Here, Tom, take these suitcases aboard!” Then he touched his hat and moved along. The porter made us comfortable in the compartment

and then he said, with many bows and smiles:

“Is there anything you want, sir? Because you can have just anything you want.” “Can I have some hot water?” I asked .

“Yes, sir, I’ll get it myself.” “Good! Now this lamp is hung too high above the berth. Can I have a better lamp fixed just at the head of my bed below the luggage rack, so that I can read comfortably?” “Yes, sir. The lamp you want is just being fixed in the next compartment. I will get it from there and fix it here. It will burn all night. Yes, sir, you can ask for anything you want, the whole railroad will be turned inside out to please you.” And he disappeared .

I smiled at my companion and said:

“Well, what do you say now? Didn’t their attitude change the moment they understood I was Mark Twain?” My companion did not answer. So I added: “Don’t you like the way you are being served? And all for the same fare.” As I was saying this, the porter’s smiling face appeared in the door way and this speech

followed:

“Oh, sir, I recognized you the minute I set my eyes on you.” “Is that so, my boy?” I said, handing him a good tip. “Who am I?” “Mr. McClellan, Mayor of New York,” he said and disappeared again .

Ex.25. Answer the following questions .

1) What was Mark Twain to do in New York? 2) What were people doing on the platform?

3) Who did Mark Twain speak to about getting a place in the train? 4) Why was Mark Twain hurt by the official’s answer? 5) What did Mark Twain’s companion say that didn’t improve the writer’s mood? 6) What did Mark Twain notice then? 7) What did the conductor say to Mark Twain?

8) What kind of compartment did the conductor put at Mark Twain’s disposal? 9) What did the conductor tell Tom to do with the gentlemen’s suitcases? 10) What did Mark Twain say about the conductor’s and the porter’s attitude to them? 11) Did Mark Twain’s companion like the way they were being served? 12) Was the conductor’s attitude to Mark Twain the result of his respect to the writer?

Ex.26. Go back to text A and find English equivalents to the following Russian phrases .

1) много лет назад; 2) сесть в спальный вагон; 3) можно мне получить спальное место?;

4) не надоедайте мне больше; 5) и ушёл прочь; 6) не могу ли я чем-нибудь помочь вам?; 7) у нас ничего не осталось; 8) он устроил нас в купе; 9) вам нужно что-нибудь?; 10) не принесёте ли вы мне горячей воды?; 11) я возьму (лампу) оттуда; 12) вы можете попросить всё, что хотите; 13) а что вы теперь скажете?; 14) как только они узнали; 15) в дверях; 16) правда?

Ex.27. True or false? Correct the statements which do not correspond to the contents of text A .

1) Several years ago Mark Twain arrived in Washington where he was to change buses. 2) At the railway station there were many people trying to get into the train. 3) Mark Twain bought the ticket in the booking office. 4) There were many vacant seats in the train. 5) When Mark Twain turned to the official at the railway station, the latter was very polite to him and said he was ready to do anything for the writer and his companion. 6) Mark Twain was very disappointed when nobody recognized him. 7) The conductor gave Mark Twain and his companion a poor little corner in a sleeper which was already overcrowded. 8) The conductor’s name was Tom. 9) There were four berths and two chairs in the compartment. 10) Mark Twain asked the porter to repair the berth .

11) The porter tried to please Mark Twain because he thought him to be Mayor of New York .

Ex.28. Complete the following sentences using words and phrases from the Vocabulary List. Try to think of as many variants as possible .

1) I consulted the railway-guide and found out that___. 2) Passenger trains are very rarely late nowadays but___. 4) If you did not book your ticket beforehand, you would have to___. 5) I phoned the Information Bureau and found out that___. 6) Where is the cloak-room, I wonder? I want to___. 7) If you want to buy a ticket for your journey, you must___. 8) We had to leave Moscow by a slow train because___. 9) If you have much luggage you can___. 10) They did not want to miss the train, that’s why___. 11) The train was ready to leave, that’s why___. 12) The train starts in twenty minutes, so if you are hungry you can___. 13) We have so much luggage. The rack won’t really hold it. We shall have to___. 3) He always buys season tickets because___ .

Ex.29. Answer the following questions .

1) How many railway stations are there in Samara (Moscow)? 2) Where can you buy a ticket for your journey? 3) What are waiting rooms for? 4) Who can help you with your luggage? 5) What carriages do you prefer to travel by? (sleeping car, open-type car or day coach). Give your reasons .

6) Where can a passenger have a snack? 7) What trains have dining cars? 8) Do you prefer to book your tickets beforehand or buy them just before your departure? 9) What is the left-luggage room for?

10) Do you usually travel light or with a lot of things? 11) Where can you buy a newspaper at the railway stations? 12) Do you like seeing your friends and relatives off? 13) Do you like it when your friends and relatives come to see you off? 14) Where can a passenger get information about the time of trains arrival and departure? 15) Do you usually buy a single or return ticket? Give your reasons .

16) Do you like an upper or a lower berth? 17) Are there smoking and non-smoking carriages on our trains? 18) To whom does a passenger show his ticket before entering the carriage? 19) Do you like reading (talking, sleeping, etc.) on a train? 20) How do you like to travel: by air, by sea, by car or by rail? Explain your choice .

Ex.30. Make up sentences, saying what you have to do (or had to do) and why?

Model: to get up early I had to get up early because I was afraid to miss the first train .

1) to stay in town all summer; 2) to go to the booking office at 7 a.m.; 3) to catch an early train;

4) to wait for a long time; 5) to pack my suitcase in a hurry; 6) to go to the railway station; 7) to see my friend off; 8) to talk about dull things; 9) to give a ring to the enquiry office; 10) to eat uneatable cereal .

Ex.31. Your friend tells you how he gets from Washington to New York. Choose suitable verbs from the box and fill in the blanks. Be careful with Grammar .

–  –  –

I usually ___ by train, because it’s only a bit slower than the plane and it’s more reliable. It ___ $100 return. The journey ___ about 4 hours. I usually ___ the 10.30 train, which ___ New York at 2 p.m. It’s comfortable and always ___ on time .

Now it’s your turn to tell your friend how you get or can get 1) from Samara to your native town; 2) from Samara to Moscow; 3) from Moscow to Vladivostok; 4) from Moscow to London;

5) from Paris to London; 6) from Samara to Washington. Use your imagination .

Ex.32. Read the following dialogues in pairs replacing Russian words by their English equivalents .

Dialogue 1 Passenger – I want билет в Springfield .

Clerk – Which Springfield? There are разные Springfields… Passenger – I suppose Springfield, Massachusetts, is the cheapest. It is the closest to here anyway. Fortunately, it is also the Springfield I want to go to. What is плата за проезд, please?

Clerk – Six dollars and eighty cents for билет “туда”, eleven dollars and fifty cents for билет “туда и обратно” .

Passenger – Когда отправляется ближайший поезд?

Clerk – Есть поезд в 4.10. There is also another at 7.20 сегодня вечером .

Passenger – Are they both прямые поезда?

Clerk – The 4.10 is скорый поезд and делает только одну остановку in New Heaven. It прибывает в Springfield at 9.30. The second is поезд, который идёт со всеми остановками and takes about полтора часа longer .

Passenger – Is there вагон ресторан on both trains?

Clerk – There is вагон ресторан on the 4.10. The 7.20 has only a snack bar. They as usual serve sandwiches and coffee, drinks, etc .

Passenger – …

What train would you choose if you were the passenger? Complete the dialogue .

Dialogue 2 Passenger – Is there поезд дальнего следования going directly to Bangor, Maine?

Clerk – Yes, there is one train. It отправляется at 1.20 in the morning. Of course you can сесть в поезд any time after eleven o’clock at night and go to bed .

Passenger – I suppose it is необходимо купить билет заранее .

Clerk – It is customary to buy a ticket at least a day in advance. Sometimes, over holidays or busy seasons, even a week in advance is safer. Плата за проезд to Bangor amounts to about twenty dollars. Нижняя полка to Bangor will cost you about two dollars more than верхняя полка .

Passenger – Is there any other difference?

Clerk – Well, in the morning, if you are on нижняя полка you get up, and if you are on верхняя полка you get down. That is one of my little jokes .

Passenger – Большое спасибо. You have been very helpful .

Clerk – Не за что. That is what we are here for .

Dialogue 3 Clerk – Добрый день, чем я могу Вам помочь?

Passenger – Good morning, I’d like билет на скорый поезд до Glasgow .

Clerk – Which train?

Passenger – The one leaving в пять тридцать .

Clerk – Билет “туда” или “туда и обратно”?

Passenger – Только туда, пожалуйста .

Clerk – Would you like первый или второй класс?

Passenger – Второй класс, пожалуйста. Is it possible to have место около окна?

Clerk – Конечно .

Passenger – Это прямой поезд?

Clerk – Да .

Passenger – Когда он прибывает в Глазго?

Clerk – Он прибывает без пятнадцати двенадцать .

Passenger – В этом поезде есть вагон-ресторан?

Clerk – Да, есть .

Passenger – And could you tell me which platform отъезжает этот поезд?

Clerk – Platform six. You have everything written on the ticket. Look: прибытие и отправление time, вагон and seat number, the date… Everything is written here .

Passenger – Thank you very much. Сколько стоит билет?

Clerk – It is 10.40 .

Passenger – Here you are .

Clerk – Thank you .

Dialogue 4 [Ted and Ben, who are about 14, have been allowed by their parents to поехать за город на поезде for a day. They make themselves comfortable in an empty купе .

Suddenly Ben sees Ted’s билет lying on the seat. He moves it up, берёт его и кладёт в карман. He says nothing to Ted.] Ted – Где мой билет? I had it a minute ago .

Ben – You’d better поискать его. Контролёр will be here через минуту. If you can’t показать him your ticket, he’ll make you платить double .

Ted – But у меня нет enough money. Что же мне делать?

[Ted gets up, turns out his pockets, ищет билет на полу, but all this doesn’t help.] Ben – У меня есть хорошая идея .

Ted – What is it?

Ben – You get under the seat till he has gone. I’ll sit over you and hide you with my legs. Он не заметит тебя. As soon as he has gone, you can come out .

Ted – He’ll be here any minute. Мне залазить под кресло right now?

Ben – Yes, you’d better. And don’t move while он в вагоне .

[Ted gets under the seat. Контролёр comes along. Ben hands him two tickets.] Insp. – Чей это билет?

Ben – Oh, that’s my friend’s .

Insp. – Where has he gone?

Ben – Nowhere. Он под креслом .

Insp. – И что он там делает?

Ben – Oh, ему нравится путешествовать под креслом, aren’t you, Ted?

Ted [getting out from under the seat] – All right! I’ll pay you back for this. Just you подожди .

Change dialogue 4 to a story, using the following words and expressions .

to buy tickets for the commuter train; to get on the train; to make oneself comfortable; to play a trick; to put the ticket in the pocket; to look for the ticket; to have a good idea; to get under the seat;

to enter the compartment; to hand the inspector two tickets; to be fond of traveling under the seat;

to pay Ben back for this trick .

TEXT B .

Read and translate the text without a dictionary .

THE MAN WHO TOOK NOTICE OF ALL THE NOTICES

My Uncle Tom worked on the railway. It wasn't a big station. Only about two trains a day stopped there, and Tom was a station master, a chief porter, and a signal operator – all in one; in fact, Tom did any work that came along, and there wasn't a happier man in the whole England .

The chief cleaner (Tom) cleaned the waiting room of the station every day; the chief ticket collector (Tom) sold and collected the tickets – sometimes there were as many as four tickets a day – and the chief clerk (Tom) counted the money every evening .

Tom ran the station very well. He was very strict about the rules. He knew what was allowed a passenger to do and what wasn’t allowed; where a passenger was permitted to smoke and where smoking was forbidden .

He was there for fifty years and then he had to retire. The representative of the Railway Company thanked Tom and gave him a small check as a present. Tom was very pleased but he said: “I don't need money, but can I have, instead, something that will remind me of the happy days I have spent here? Could the company let me have a part of an old railway carriage, just one compartment? It doesn't matter how old and broken it is. I want to put it into my back garden and every day I could go and sit in it.” About a week later a compartment was sent to him. Tom put it into his back garden, cleaned it, painted it and polished it .

One day, about a year after Tom retired we decided to visit him. It was a bad day for a visit, it was raining hard. We knocked but there was no answer. We went into the garden, sure enough, he was there, but he wasn't sitting in the carriage, he was outside, on the step of the carriage, smoking a pipe .

“Hello, Tom,” – I said, “why are you sitting there, why don't you go inside the carriage out of the rain?” “Can't you see?” – said Tom, “the carriage is a non-smoker!” Ex.33. Go back to the text and find the English equivalents to the following words and phrases .

начальник станции; сигнальщик; контролёр; на самом деле; зал ожидания; управлять (руководить) станцией; строгий; запрещать; позволять; уйти на пенсию; представитель компании; напоминать о счастливых днях; не имеет значения; вагон для некурящих .

TEXT C Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary .

HOW TO AVOID TRAVELING

(after G. Mikes) Travel is the name of a modern disease, which started in the mid-fifties and is still spreading .

The patient grows restless in the early spring and starts rushing about from one travel agency to another, collecting useless information about the places he doesn’t intend to visit. Then, he or usually she, will do a round of shops* and spend much more than he or she can afford. Finally in August, the patient will board a plane, a train, a bus or a car and go to foreign countries along with thousands of his fellow-countrymen, not because he is interested in or attracted by some place, nor because he can afford to go but simply because he cannot afford not to. The result is that in the summer months (and in the last few years during the winter season too) everybody is on the move** .

What is the aim of traveling? Each nationality has its own different one. The Americans want to take photographs of themselves in different places. The idea is simply to collect documentary proof that they have been there. The German travels to check up on his guidebooks. Why do the English travel? First, because their neighbor does. Secondly, they were taught that travel broadens the mind***. But mainly they travel to avoid foreigners. I know many English people who travel in groups, stay in hotels where even the staff is English, eat roast beef and Yorkshire pudding on Sunday and steak-and-kidney pies on weekdays, all over Europe. The main aim of the Englishman abroad is to meet people, I mean, of course, nice English people from the next door or from the next street. It is possible, however, that the mania for traveling is coming to an end. A Roman friend of mine told me: “I no longer travel at all. I stay here because I want to meet my friends from all over the world.” “What exactly do you mean?” I asked. “It is simple,” he explained. “Whenever I go to London my friend Smith is in Tokyo and Brown is in Sicily. If I go to Paris, my friends are either in London or in Spain. But if I stay in Rome all my friends, I’m sure, will turn up at one time or another****. The world means people to me. I stay here because I want to see the world. Besides, staying at home broadens the mind.” Notes: *to do a round of shops – идти от одного магазина к другому, покупая что-либо **to be on the move – путешествовать ***to broaden the mind – расширять кругозор ****at one time or another – раньше или позже Ex.34. True or false? Correct the statements which do not correspond to the contents of text C .

1) Travel is the name of a modern disease, which started in the mid-forties. 2) People begin thinking about traveling in the early spring. 3) Preparing for the trip, he or she spends more than he or she can afford. 4) In November people board planes, trains, buses, subway or cars and go to foreign countries. 5) In summer everybody stay at home. 6) Each nationality has its own aim of traveling. 7) The Americans travel because they want to check up on their guidebooks. 8) The English travel abroad to avoid foreigners and to meet nice English people. 9) The German travels all over Europe to eat roast beef and Yorkshire pudding. 10) Staying at home broadens the mind .

TEXT D Have you ever read any English books in the original? The text given below is taken from the famous A. Christie’s story. Try to translate it, consulting a dictionary as little as possible .

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Mrs. McGillicuddy was going along the platform, trying to catch up with the porter who was carrying her suitcase. Mrs. McGillicuddy was burdened with a large number of parcels; the result of a day’s Christmas shopping. Platform No 1 was rather crowded; people were rushing in several directions at once, to and from undergrounds, left-luggage offices, tea-rooms, enquiry offices, indicator boards, to the outside world .

Mrs. McGillicuddy and her parcels were buffeted to and fro, but she arrived at last at the entrance to Platform No 3 and deposited one parcel at her feet while she was looking her bag for the ticket that would enabled her to pass stern uniformed guardian at the gate .

At that moment, a loud voice burst into speech over her head. “The train standing at Platform 3” the voice told her, “is the 4.50 for Brackhampton, Milchester and Roxeter. Passengers for Brackhampton travel at the rear of the train. Passengers for Carvil change at Roxeter”. The voice shut itself off with a click and then reopened conversation by announcing the arrival at Platform No. 9 of the 4.00 from Birmingham .

Mrs. McGillicuddy found her ticket and presented it. The man clipped it, murmured: “On the right-rear portion.” Mrs. McGillicuddy found her porter outside the door of a third-class carriage .

“Here you are, lady.” – “I’m traveling first-class,” said Mrs. McGillicuddy. “You didn’t say so,” grumbled the porter. He took the suitcase and marched with it to the adjoining coach. The 4.50 was almost empty, as the first-class passengers preferred either the faster morning express or the

6.40 with a dining car. Mrs. McGillicuddy handed the porter his tip, which he received with disappointment, considering it more suitable to third-class than to first-class travel. But Mrs .

McGillicuddy, though prepared to spend money on comfortable travel after a night journey from the North and a day’s feverish shopping, was at no time an extravagant tipper .

She made herself comfortable on the plush cushions with a sigh and opened a magazine. Five minutes later, whistles blew, and the train started. Three minutes later she was asleep. She slept for forty minutes and awoke refreshed. It was quite dark now. “Serving last tea now,” said an attendant, opening the corridor door. But Mrs. McGillicuddy had already had tea at a large department store. She looked up at the rack where her various parcels reposed, with a pleased expression. Her satisfied gaze returned to the window; a train traveling in the opposite direction rushed by with a screech, making the windows rattle. The train passed through a station. Then it began suddenly to slow down, probably in obedience to a signal. For some minutes it crawled along, stopped; and then began to move forward again, gathering speed. For a time two trains ran parallel, now one gaining a little, now the other. Mrs. McGillicuddy looked from her window through the windows of the parallel carriages. Most of the blinds were down, but occasionally the passengers of the carriages were visible. The other train was not very full and there were many empty coaches. Suddenly in one of the compartments of the passing train Mrs. McGillicuddy saw a man. His hands were round the throat of a woman who faced him; he was slowly, remorselessly strangling her .

Ex.35. Answer the following questions .

1) Where was Mrs. McGillicuddy hurrying to? 2) Did she have a lot of luggage? Why?

3) What were people doing at the railway station? 4) What did the voice announce? 5) Was Mrs .

McGillicuddy’s porter satisfied with the tip? 6) Why was the train almost empty? 7) Was Mrs .

McGillicuddy comfortable in her compartment? Prove it. 8) What did she suddenly see, looking out of the window of her compartment?

Ex.36. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English .

1) С какой платформы и с какого пути отходит поезд на Прагу? 2) У нас очень много вещей: 9 чемоданов. Надо взять двух носильщиков. 3) Сколько стоит билет до Лондона в скором поезде? 4) Когда отправляется последний поезд на Ригу? 5) Если вы поедете в Баку через Астрахань, вам придётся сделать две пересадки. 6) Где проводник? Я хочу попросить его [а] починить дверь нашего купе; [б] помочь мне снять чемодан с багажной полки; [в] поднять/ опустить окно; [г] принести постельные принадлежности, чай, расписание; [д] узнать, когда мы будем в Москве. 7) Поезд опоздал на три часа из-за сильных снежных заносов вблизи Балтимора. 8) Скажите, пожалуйста, как пройти: [а] в зал ожидания; [б] в камеру хранения багажа; [в] к билетным кассам; [г] на платформу 6; [д] в кабинет начальника вокзала; [е] на платформу, от которой отходят пригородные поезда; [ж] в туристическое агентство. 9) Этот поезд на Москву? Где пятый вагон? 10) Я узнал в справочном бюро, что из Москвы в Петрозаводск можно проехать только через Петербург .

11) Будьте добры, узнайте у проводника, как долго мы стоим в Ростове и когда мы его проедем. 12) Пора в вагон! Поезд отходит через две минуты. 13) “Мы опаздываем на 20 минут, но я думаю, что поезд нагонит [to make up the time] и мы прибудем в Москву вовремя,” – сказал проводник. 14) Какая это станция? Долго мы здесь будем стоять? 15) Да, это поезд на Петербург, но это скорый поезд, а у вас билет на поезд, идущий со всеми остановками. 16) Я предъявил билет контролёру. 17) Надо торопиться. Мы можем опоздать на поезд .

LESSON THREE FROM THE HISTORY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

Ex.1. Practice the reading .

tion, sion preparation, election, protection, inspection, injection, destination, computerization, condition, reduction, demagnetization, contamination, introduction, contribution, attention, stationary, acceleration, dictionary, detection, application, gravitation, deviation, ignition, competition, mention, motion, civilization, conventional, constructional;

session, conversion, compression, permission, confession, dimension, suspension, depression, expansion, transmission, extension, professional, collision, precision, decision, confusion, fusion, corrosion, division, explosion, adhesion, abrasion, occasional .

ar, er, or, ur, ir discard, cargo, artery, compartment, depart, charter, debark, barge, enlarge, apart, arc, charge, hardly, parking, starter, article, alarm, parcel;

BUT: warm, warn, award, warrant;

internal, terminal, transfer, alert, berth, concern, serve, service, emerge, personal, commercial, convert, permanent, defer, advertisement, converge, per, alternative, certain, refer, mercury, reserve;

perform, formula, reinforce, ordinary, extraordinary, ore, accord, enormous, retort, cordon, absorb, border, corporation, disorder, forward, incorporate, record, normally, transform, support;

BUT: worth, word, worm, world;

urgent, surface, turbine, furnace, occur, disturb, surname, interurban, suburban, curve, turn, return, further, purpose, survey, furbish, burst, spur, absurd, burden, cursor, curb;

firm, circuit, birth, circular, swirl, confirm, first, third, birch, shirk, smirk, affirm .

Words and word combinations to be remembered

1) to consider – считать, полагать; учитывать, принимать во внимание

2) to cover – проходить, преодолевать (расстояние); охватывать; покрывать

3) to delay – задерживать(ся), опаздывать

4) to design – проектировать, конструировать design – проект, конструкция

5) double-track line –двухпутная линия

6) to draw (drew, drawn) – тянуть, тащить

7) to drive (drove, driven) – ехать, везти, вести; приводить в движение

8) engine – двигатель; локомотив

9) freight – груз(ы)

10) to fuel – заправлять топливом fuel – топливо

11) gauge – ширина колеи, колея narrow-gauge railway – узкоколейная железная дорога broad-gauge railway – ширококолейная железная дорога

12) to invent – изобретать invention – изобретение inventor – изобретатель

13) to invite – приглашать invitation – приглашение

14) main – основной, главный mainline – магистраль mainly – в основном

15) to mean (meant, meant) – значить, означать; иметь в виду means of transport – средство транспорта means of communication – средство связи

16) to move – двигаться movement – движение

17) to power – приводить в движение power – сила, мощность, энергия powerful – мощный motive power – движущая сила horse-powered – приводимый в движение лошадьми

18) to produce – производить, создавать production – производство, изготовление

19) railway track – железнодорожный путь (полотно)

20) to replace – заменять replacement – замена

21) route – линия, маршрут en route – в пути

22) sleeper – шпала; спальный вагон

23) steam – пар

24) vehicle – транспортное средство

25) wheel – колесо

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Translate the sentences given below from Russian into English .

1) Машины заменили тяжёлый ручной труд строителей железных дорог. 2) Срок службы бетонных шпал – 40-50 лет. 3) Первые вагонеточные пути использовались на шахтах [a mine] для перевозки угля [coal]. 4) В России первое самоходное транспортное средство было изобретено И.П. Кулибиным в 18 веке. 5) Реактивные двигатели работают на керосине [kerosene]. 6) Первый паровоз отца и сына Черепановых имел четыре колеса, два из которых были ведущими. 7) Деревянные рельсы были недолговечными [short-lived], поэтому их сначала заменили чугунными, а затем стальными. 8) Существуют различные типы двигателей внутреннего сгорания: такие как дизельный, бензиновый, электрический, реактивный. 9) С изобретением парового двигателя начался новый этап [stage] в развитии транспорта. 10) Люди накопили большой опыт в сооружении мостов и виадуков .

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Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words .

1) Modern locomotives can ___ the trains of 6,000 tons and heavier. 2) ___ of the old engine will take two hours. 3) In the USA the use of electric ___ in transportation began in 1887 .

4) Rudolf Diesel designed ___ which was one of the greatest ___ of the 20th century. 5) In Britain wooden sleepers last about twenty years, whereas the ___ of a wooden sleeper in India is fifteen years. 6) At 100° С water is converted into ___. 7) They had to ___ rather a long distance on foot .

8) This ___ machine is operated by one person. 9) Many old ____ can be seen in the museum of transport. 10) At first coal gas was used as ___ for diesel engines. 11) Steel ___ first appeared in Europe in 1868, mainly ___ the shortage of durable wood in some countries. 12) We couldn’t start the ___ of the car at –30°C. 13) The invention of ___ started the first industrial revolution. 14) The engineers ___ that the main drawback of the new ___ is its high cost. 15) ___ sleepers last long because this material is not subjected to corrosion .

Ex.5. Choose the correct word or words and translate the sentences .

1) The driver of the [steam locomotive; vehicle; electric car] may be fined by the police officer if he violates the traffic rules or drives under the influence of alcohol .

2) George M. Pullman not only [required; invented; replace] the sleeping car, he also was the first to design and build the [restaurant car; wheel; steam engine] .

3) Aircrafts are not able to [move; carry; pull] a lot in weight and are used mainly for transporting mail, people and valuable [goods; passengers; freight]. [Heavy; light; narrow] loads are usually transported by freight trains .

4) Your car is in good condition but you have to [improve; use; replace] worn-out tires .

5) Electric train can be [driven; propelled; powered] either by electric locomotive or by motor cars .

6) The invention of the [fuel; double-track railway; steam engine] aroused great interest; it was much spoken and written about .

7) The first [electric; jet; steam] locomotives were not strong and they often broke down .

8) An atomic icebreaker needs only a few grams of [coal; diesel fuel; atomic fuel] a week, whereas an ordinary icebreaker needs more than 100 tons of fuel a day .

9) The underground is a very convenient [means of transport; form of transport; vehicle] but it does not suit me because I live a long way from the station .

10) There were many passengers at the airport on New Year’s Eve as many flights were [delayed; required; prevented] because of the snowstorm .

11) New plastic and synthetic materials are widely [applied; used; substituted] for the interior and exterior finishes of carriages .

12) As the railways now have a [standard gauge; narrow gauge; broad gauge], it is possible to travel over several lines without changing bogies [тележка] .

Ex.6. Read the following sentences, replacing the Russian words by their English equivalents. Be careful with Grammar!

1) Werner von Siemens [создавать] the first experimental [электровоз]. 2) There was something wrong with the front [колесо] of the car. 3) Box cars [использоваться] for [перевозка грузов] which [требовать] protection from the weather. 4) There was some [двигатель] trouble and the driver asked the passengers to [выходить] the bus. 5) On the first railways [шпала] were laid down along [железнодорожный путь]; nowadays [шпала] are laid down transversely. 6) Samuel Morse [изобретать] a code in which letters of the alphabet [заменять] by dots and dashes. 7) At the railway stations there are announcement boards that inform passengers when and to what [путь] the train [прибывать]. 8) A dispatcher controls [движение поездов] over a definite section of [путь]. 9) The construction of new railway lines is always preceded by long and thorough [изыскательская работа]. 10) In the past the word «engineer» [означать] [конструктор двигателей]. 11) The trains [задерживать] [в пути] by the snowstorm for a couple of hours .

12) After the accident they had to [заменять] [топливный] tank. 13) When the first [самоходное транспортное средство] appeared, measures were taken to limit their speed in many countries .

Ex.7. Pay attention to compound prepositions: according to, as far as, because of, by means of, due to, in addition to, in front of, in order to, on account of, owing to, thanks to, in spite of. Match the beginnings of the sentences with their endings .

1) Because of bad weather… a) due to careless driving .

2) He ran across the street… b) the Metro station with you .

3) Everything went… c) on account of low clouds .

4) The accident has happened… d) in order to catch the bus .

5) No planes took off on that day… e) according to the plan .

6) In addition to the usual methods of f) the passenger service in the city was computation… improved .

7) I will go as far as… g) the train was not late .

8) By means of telephone… h) they used computers .

9) Is there a bus stop… i) the number of accidents went down .

10) Owing to the establishment of the new trolley- j) people communicate with each other at bus route… great distance .

11) Thanks to the new system of regulations… k) the match was postponed for a week .

12) In spite of the dense fog… l) in front of your house?

Ex.8. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate compound prepositions. Consult the box .

1) ___ the information received by us the ship will arrive on the 10th of April. 2) I go by bus ___ the State Library and then walk a few blocks to my office. 3) ___ his help we finished our work early .

4) Taking off the plane was delayed ___ a heavy rain. 5) The dispatcher can communicate with the loco driver over long distances ___ a radiotelephone. 6) The new equipment was used ___ test the vibration of the engine. 7) ___ the trouble in the engine there appeared another in the transmission .

8) The work is going on ___ the schedule. 9) He was late ___ heavy traffic. 10) The Metro station is ___ my house. 11) ___ the new project, the railway will be extended ___ the seaport. 12) ___ win in the competition with air transport, the efficiency and quality of freight and passenger services must be improved. 13) The train departure had not been delayed ___ the accident. 14) ___ this device we can carry out more operations in shorter time. 15) ___ the problem with the car, we enjoyed the journey very much. 16) The engine didn't operate well ___ bad fuel. 17) ___ to sails the boat was also supplied with a motor. 18) No traffic was allowed ___ the accident. 19) In big ports ships are loaded and unloaded ___ powerful cranes. 20) ___ the traffic lights ahead, the car continued moving at the same speed. 21) It is necessary to build good roads ___ promote the rapid development of this region. 22) D.I. Mendeleyev arranged chemical elements ___ their atomic weights .

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Ex.9. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions if necessary. Consult the box .

1) The management of the Oktyabrskaya Railway pays much attention ___ the improvement of passengers’ service ___ the terminals. 2) Steam locomotives were not able to haul very heavy trains ___ a high speed. 3) There were no means of direct communication ___ the telephone was invented .

4) He was invited ___ the conference but he didn't accept the invitation. 5) The fog prevented the planes ___ taking off. 6) The first passenger cars were lighted ___ candles; later candles were replaced ___ oil and gas lamps. 7) This new train develops a very high speed since it is equipped ___ powerful engines. 8) Steel which is used ___ the production ___ rails must be of high quality .

9) The incandescent lamp was invented ___ Thomas Edison. 10) The switch [стрелочный перевод] is the mechanism which is used to move the trains ___ one track ___ another. 11) There are a number ___ questions I'd like to speak ___ you ___. 12) Their decision will depend ___ how interesting your offer is. 13) The railway station is an hour’s drive ___ my house. 14) The traffic in the city center was delayed ___ the demonstration .

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Ex.10. Form the degrees of comparison of the following adjectives and adverbs:

attentive, backward, bad, brittle, careful, cheap, clever, close, comfortable, considerable, convenient, dangerous, difficult, dirty, dry, early, easy, expensive, famous, fast, good, happy, hard, heavy, high, hot, important, late, lazy, little, loud, lucky, modern, narrow, necessary, powerful, quick, rapid, reliable, sad, safe, simple, slow, small, soft, swift, suitable, useful, wide .

Ex.11. Compare the objects according to the model .

Model: the new bridge – the old bridge (narrow). The old bridge was much narrower than the new bridge .

1) an automobile – a bicycle [fast]. 2) water – oil [light]. 3) a steam engine – an internal combustion engine [small]. 4) train tickets – airplane tickets [cheap]. 5) to translate the text – to retell the text [easy]. 6) reading – watching TV [useful]. 7) sleeping cars – open-type cars [comfortable] .

8) public transport in London – in Europe [expensive]. 9) Japanese – Spanish [difficult]. 10) the TransSiberian Mainline – the Kuibyshev Railway [long]. 11) this trunk – that suitcase [light]. 12) the new engine – the old engine [powerful]). 13) to go by airplane – to go by train [slow]. 14) glass – metal [brittle]. 15) stone – wood [heavy] .

Ex.12. Read and translate the sentences, paying attention to adjectives and adverbs .

1) In the USA people prefer to use motor transport or aircrafts because traveling by train is slower than by plane and tickets are sometimes more expensive. 2) The first rails were made of cast iron but when traffic became heavier it was found that cast iron was too brittle and wore too quickly .

3) Thanks to the invention of the radio it is possible to communicate with the remotest parts of the world. 4) In the Grand Prix motor racing just a few seconds sometimes separate the fastest car from the slowest car in a race. 5) The most outstanding miniature railway in the world is the track which encircles the Disney Park. 6). In Australia the traffic is heavier during the winter months, when many tourists travel in passenger trains. 7) Statistically it is safer to travel by air than to drive a car .

8) Heathrow, Britain’s largest international airport, is linked with the capital by the Underground railway. 9) It is much more convenient to travel by express train because it doesn’t stop at small stations, and it takes you less time to get to your destination. 10) One of the longest continuous underground railway tunnels in the world is the 17.5 mile tunnel on the Northern line of the London Underground. 11) Petrol engines are lighter and smaller than diesel engines; they are cheaper, less noisy and go faster that is why they are used in cars and motorbikes. On the other hand diesel engines use less fuel; last longer than petrol engines, this is why larger vehicles such as trucks and trains use them. They are also safer than petrol engines, because there is less danger of fire .

Ex.13. Read the following sentences, using the adjectives given in brackets in the required degree of comparison .

1) Radio and television are [great] achievements of the 20th century. 2) The problem was [serious] than we expected. 3) The diamond is [hard] mineral in the world. 4) Railways cause [little] air contamination than other modes of transport. 5) Both roads lead to the city center, but the left-hand one is a bit [short] and [direct] than the right-hand road. 6) Although there are now [fast] and [modern] means of transport, railways still remain [safe] and [popular] form of transport .

7) The railway line that has no long tunnels and bridges is [cheap] line. 8) The railway construction became [easy] and [quick] after the invention of special track-laying machines and other equipment .

9) Passengers traveling from Moscow to Vladivostok have to move the hands of their watches seven times because the Trans-Siberian Mainline, [long] railway on our planet, crosses seven time zones .

10) The bridge crosses the river at its [narrow] point. 11) When air is warmed it expands and becomes [light]. 12) He gained [large] prize in a lottery. 13) New models of computer processors have [great] speed and are [reliable] than the old ones. 14) [Low] temperature on the Earth was recorded on the North Pole. 15) I wish I lived [near] my work because it takes me much time to get there Ex.14. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English .

1) Железная дорога Москва-Санкт Петербург – самая старая и самая знаменитая магистраль в нашей стране. 2) Щебёнка [broken stone] – самый подходящий материал для балласта. 3) КПД [efficiency] электровозов в четыре раза выше, чем КПД паровозов. 4) В настоящее время некоторые самолёты летают быстрее звука. 5) Где находится ближайшее почтовое отделение? 6) Благодаря компьютерам мы обрабатываем [to process] информацию в миллион раз быстрее. 7) Билет в плацкартный вагон стоит дешевле, чем в спальный, потому что спальные вагоны более удобные. 8) Самый длинный автомобильный [road] тоннель в мире соединяет Францию и Италию. Он построен под [beneath] самой высокой горой Европы Монблан [Mont Blanc]. 9) Бетонные шпалы более надёжные, чем деревянные, и они служат [to last] дольше. 10) В 1994 году Париж стал для лондонцев ближе, чем Глазго [Glasgow], потому что железнодорожный тоннель под Ла-Маншем [the Channel Tunnel] был открыт для движения .

Ex.15. Past Indefinite or Present Perfect? Put the verbs into the correct tense forms .

1) I to lose my passport last month, and nobody to find it yet. 2) Two years to pass since he left .

3) They to move to Washington several years ago. 4) The engineer to show his foreign friends the bridge in the building of which he to take part in 1980. 5) He not/ to decide yet what to do. 6) We to know each other since childhood. 7) The journalists to ask me many questions at the yesterday’s interview. 8) When … you to arrive in Prague? – I to arrive here last September. So I to live in this city for three months. 9) Are you still studying or … you already to find a job? 10) I to rush to the platform and to get on the train. 11) The coffee I to buy last week is very good but very expensive .

12) We to learn a lot of words and grammatical rules lately. 13) All my money to steal on the way to the airport yesterday and I couldn’t fly anywhere. 14) Mail just to deliver by the helicopter 15) …you ever to visit other countries? – Yes, I to be to France and Spain. 16) Today I to invite to give a talk on the radio. 17) Don’t worry! The equipment already to pack. 18) We first to come to this town more than twenty years ago. Everything to change in the town since that time. 19) The nearest way to the station to show to them an hour ago, but they not/ to arrive yet. 20) She to ask the clerk if all the trains arrive on time here .

Ex.16. Past Indefinite, Past Continuous or Past Perfect? Put the verbs into the correct tense forms .

1) The police officer [to ask] me what I [to do] at the time when the accident took place .

2) They spoke so quickly that I didn’t understand what they [to talk] about. 3) While we [to wait] for the train, it [to start] to rain. 4) We knew that the 2 o’clock train [to leave] already and decided to go by bus. 5) Before I came to the office the manager already [to sign] the documents. 6) Where … you [to be] at about three yesterday afternoon? – Oh, I [to repair] my car at that time. 7) I [to see] you from the bus yesterday. Where … you [to hurry] at that time? 8) The journey from Paris to London [to take] much longer before the Channel Tunnel was built. 9) I didn’t convince the inspector that I [to lose] my ticket only some moments before.. 10) The station master [to say] that no trains [to arrive] at the station during the night because of the heavy snowstorm in the mountains .

11) They [to work out] a detailed plan before starting off on an expedition. 12) Mary [to clean] the windscreen when she noticed a crack in the glass. 13) Some people [to sleep] on the benches waiting for their trains. 14) Yesterday he [to pass] his driving test at the first attempt .

Ex.17 .

A) Give news about yourself and other people to a friend of yours. Use the words given to make sentences in the Present Perfect Tense Active or Passive .

Model: she/ to graduate from University/ this year. This year she has graduated from University .

1) to Australia/ Jane and Mike/ to go to work/ already. 2) to promote/ this month/ John/ to the chief manager. 3) recently/ to find/ I/ a new job. 4) Jill/ this year/ London University/ not to enter .

5) not to retire/ my father/ yet. 6) my brother/ just/ a new motorcycle/ to buy. 7) Nick/ in another firm/ a good job/ to offer. 8) not to go/ this week/ he/ on business. 9) I/ recently/ to give/ as a present/ a computer. 10) to join/ I/ another football club. 11) Jack/ a fortune/ to receive, millionaire/ to become/ he. 12) out flat/ yet/ not to repair. 13) for ages/ not to see/ I/ you. 14) Ann/ just/ to return/ from London. 15) in London/ never/ to be/ I. 16) today/ I/ near my house/ to meet/ Ron/ by chance .

17) we/ since/ not to see/ each other/ last autumn .

B) Your friend is visiting his relatives in the USA. Ask him about what he or his relatives have seen or done .

Model: to have/ a good journey/ you? Have you had a good journey?

1) already/ you/ to see/ the Great American Lakes? 2) your brother/ new places/ already/ to show/ what/ to you? 3) to Broadway/ ever/ to be/ you? 4) to get/ your father/ promotion/ lately? 5) to receive/ your driving license/ already/ you? 6) a car/ to change/ your brother/ this year? 7) to buy/ you/ what kind of house? 8) Mary/ not to meet/ you/ yet? 9) to move/ the Browns/ to another city/ why?

Ex.18. Read and translate the following sentences. State the tense and voice form of the predicates .

Model: have heard – Present Perfect Active (to hear) will be increased – Future Indefinite Passive (to increase)

1) We have heard on the radio today that the railway fares will be increased. 2) The passengers had been invited to get on the train and now they were exchanging farewells with those who had come to see them off. 3) Boeing’s new airplane is faster and more luxurious than any other vehicles which have ever been produced. 4) Hurry up! I’m afraid by the time we get to the station the train will have already left. 5) The new American turbo-train has covered a 230-mile distance in 3 hours 15 minutes with 4 stops between Boston and New York. 6) The reason for the freight train derailment has not been found yet. 7) Until recently the price difference between the first and second class tickets on the Spanish Railways had been amounted to 81%. This difference has been greatly reduced and now first class fare is only 30% more expensive than second class. 8) When we came to the station the train had already arrived, and the passengers were hurrying to occupy their seats in the carriages. 9) It has been calculated that East Japan Railway Company sells 1,000 tons of tickets annually. These tickets are now being collected and re-used in the manufacture of cardboard and toilet paper. 10) For many years railway track has been laid and repaired by hard manual labor .

11) By the time the train reached its destination Paul had made friends with many of his fellow travelers. 12) Double-deck buses have been operated in Moscow for several months but they were found inconvenient especially during the rush hours. 13) The train stopped at all the stations, and long before we got to London every seat had been occupied and people were standing in the corridors .

Ex.19. Open the brackets using the verbs in the required tense form and translate the sentences from English into Russian .

1) The man [to fine – Present Perfect Passive] by a policeman for crossing the street in the wrong place .

2) When the fire brigade [to arrive – Past Indefinite Active], the fire [to destroy – Past Perfect Active] already the building .

3) Many people [to be – Past Indefinite Active] afraid of the railways when they first [to appear – Past Indefinite Active] .

4) The movement of trains [to stop – Past Indefinite Passive] on that section of the line because the workers [to replace – Past Continuous Active] the sleepers .

5) Several newspapers [to report – Present Perfect Active] that the Russian and Finnish governments [to discuss – Present Continuous Active] a project for the reconstruction of the Helsinki-St.Petersburg railroad known in Finland as the Eastern Railway .

6) The train crew [to inform – Past Indefinite Passive] that the departure time [to change – Past Perfect Passive] .

7) Nowadays crossties [to make – Present Indefinite Passive] of wood, concrete, steel, castiron; in some countries experiments [to go on – Present Continuous Active] with plastic sleepers .

8) He [to spend – Present Indefinite Active] all his spare time driving his new car .

9) There [to be – Past Indefinite Active] a car by the side of the road. It [to break – Past Perfect Active] down and the driver [to try – Past Continuous Active] to repair it .

10) I [to take – Present Perfect Active] somebody else’s suitcase by mistake .

11) Turn off the gas. Don’t you see the kettle [to boil – Present Continuous Active]?

12) A man who [to sit – Past Continuous Active] in the compartment said that the place [to take – Past Indefinite Passive] by a passenger who [to go – Past Perfect Active] to the diner .

Ex.20. Choose the required voice form of the predicates (Active or Passive) .

1) A new device [has tested; has been tested] in the lab. 2) The dining car was crowded but we [served; were served] rather fast. 3) A taxi [called; was called] 15 minutes ago; so we [are expecting; are being expected] it any moment. 4) At the corner of the street we [saw; were seen] a car. The driver [was examining; was being examined] the engine. 5) The road is closed because the road-works [are conducting; are being conducted]. 6) Powerful track-laying machines [have developed; have been developed] for the building of railroads. 7) The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development [has made; has been made] a loan of $US 120 to the Russian Ministry of Railways for the railway rehabilitation project. 8) David thought that his father [had repaired; had been repaired] his bicycle. 9) A new railway underground line [is constructing; is being constructed] in our city. One of the Metro stations [will build; will be built] near my house .

10) He [broke; was broken] my watch. 11) The manager [has offered; has been offered] me several jobs. 12) I [will give; will be given] a leave in July if there is no urgent work. 13) It was noisy. Nobody [was listening; was being listened] to him. 14) Bill [kept; was kept] his word and arrived exactly at the time he [had promised; had been promised]. 15) You can’t watch the film now; the TV set [is fixing; is being fixed] by the mechanic .

Ex.21. In the following sentences replace Active with Passive:

A) using the Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect Tenses .

Model: 1) The manager will sign the contracts tomorrow. The contracts will be signed by the manager tomorrow. 2) We had to hurry. They were waiting for us. We had to hurry. We were being waited for. 3) Have they tested all the machines? Have all the machines been tested?

1) The railway builders have finished the construction of the line ahead of time. 2) Russia developed the first automatic engine driver in 1960. 3) By that time we had changed our plans .

4) They bought tickets two days before their departure. 5) Air-conditioning system always maintains the optimum temperature and humidity in the carriage. 6) The management of the railway will install the new electronic system for booking train tickets at the terminals. 7) People build viaducts in order to cross gorges, canyons and ravines. 8) Engineers are busy now; they are testing a new engine. 9) He reported that the firm was holding talks about the construction of the automobile plant in our city. 10) They gave him no explanation why they had stopped the experiment. 11) The scientific journal has published an article about the transport of future this month. 12) The briefing is in full swing. The correspondents are interviewing the participants of the conference. 13) The new railway line will connect central and eastern regions of the country. 14) By his arrival they had repaired the car. 15) He has booked the tickets and the clerk will have brought them by 2 o’clock. 16) I’m afraid, you will be late. They will have finished the talks by 5 o’clock .

B) using modal verbs .

Model: He can do this work. The work can be done (by him) .

1) She can find a job easily. 2) The matter is urgent. They have to phone her immediately. 3) You must send the document as quickly as possible. 4) He has got a pay rise now they can buy a new house .

5) The lecture is over. You may ask your questions. 6) Ecologists say that we should take care of our planet. 7) He was to give back the book on Saturday. 8) The boss wants to talk to Mr. Black. You must find him immediately. 9) You should avoid the centre of the city during rush hours. 10) We are to conduct a series of experiments this week. 11) He should not sign the contract without reading it thoroughly. 12) You must not exceed the speed limit if you don’t want to be fined by the traffic policeman. 13) You may write this exercise with a pencil. 14) You must do it without delay .

–  –  –

*The results of the test: If your score is 15-17 correct answers, you are doing just great; 12-14 stand for good knowledge; 7-11 mean you have some problems; if the number of your correct answers is less than 7, go and learn the rules .

Ex.23. Put questions to the underlined words .

1) The length of the bus route has been increased by 3 km. [How many…?]

2) The rails are called T-rails because of their shape. [Why…?]

3) The load weighs a hundred kilograms. [How many…?]

4) Each passenger must fasten the belt when the plane takes off or lands. [When…?]

5) Now all the railways have a standard gauge. [What…?]

6) She left her driving license at home. [Where…?]

7) They have been offered 350 for their old car, but its price is much higher. [Who…? How much…?]

8) For some period of time one underground railway line in London was working entirely without drivers. [Where…?]

9) Twenty seven British scientists have gained Nobel awards since 1945. [What…?]

10) The pipe is leaking at the joint. [Where…?]

11) The two-speed escalators are being installed at new Metro stations. [Where…?]

12) According to the terms of the contract the equipment will be paid for on delivery .

[When…?]

13) The service life of steel sleepers lasts from 35 to 60 years. [How long…?]

14) The windows in this car are made of unbreakable glass. [What…?]

15) On the bus he was sitting right in front of me. [Where…?]

16) The first motor car drivers had to carry large cans of fuel as there were no filling stations at that time. [Why…?] Ex.24. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to different tense forms and voice of the predicates .

1) После реконструкции линии скорость поездов будет увеличена. 2) Ты обычно покупаешь билеты заранее или в день отъезда? – Это зависит от обстоятельств (circumstances). 3) Когда отправляется поезд в Бостон? – Один поезд только что ушёл, а следующий будет через два часа. 4) Поезд проходит расстояние от Москвы до Самары за 20 часов. 5) Вы не можете взять сейчас магнитофон, так как он сломался, и его ремонтируют. 6) Проводник вышел из вагона и пригласил пассажиров занять свои места. 7) Когда мы пришли на станцию, все билеты были уже проданы. 8) Машины медленно двигались по горной дороге. 9) Главный инженер сказал, что наш проект обсуждали долгое время, но, в конце концов (eventually), он был принят .

10) Паровой двигатель был изобретён в 18 веке .

TEXT A Read and translate the text using a dictionary if necessary .

FROM THE HISTORY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

Part 1 The word ‘transport’ (or ‘transportation’) means to carry people or goods from place to place .

Henry Ford, the American motor-car manufacturer, said that “transportation is civilization” .

The history of transport is divided into two stages. The first stage is that in which all modes of transport depended directly on the power of men or animals, or on natural forces such as wind and current. The second stage began with the development of the steam engine. Do you know who invented it? It is sometimes said that James Watt got the idea for a steam engine while still a boy, watching steam lift the lid of his mother's tea kettle. The truth is that James Watt did not invent the steam engine; however, he made major improvements on the inefficient steam engine patented in 1705 by Thomas Newcomen, John Cawley, and Thomas Savery. James Watt installed his engine in a machine which was used at a large coal mine for pumping out the water. Soon this invention was widely used at nearly every large enterprise. The revolution in industry made by this machine was extremely great .

One of the first attempts to put a steam engine on wheels was made by Richard Trevithick, a British mining engineer. In 1804 he demonstrated the first successful railroad steam locomotive. His engine pulled a short train of cars uphill on a coal-mine railway in Wales. In the years after Trevithick’s locomotive, several others were built for use on various British coal-mine railways .

The world’s first common carrier railroad1 to use steam power was the Stockton-Darlington railway in England. It was designed and built by George Stephenson and opened for public service in 1825. On the day when it was opened, a man on a horse went in front of the engine and shouted that the train was coming. People on horses and in carriages were driving near the train. When they had gone for some time, Stephenson, who was running his locomotive, asked the horseman to go away. He put steam on and ran his locomotive at a speed of 12 miles per hour (about 20 km per hour). It was a success .

But the British Parliament did not want to construct railways. The members of the parliament did not believe that steam engines could run against a strong wind. Then Stephenson built a new locomotive and called it the Rocket. This locomotive was faster and stronger than the first one; it could draw a 13-ton train at an “unheard-of speed” of 29 miles per hour (46 km per hour). In 1829 the Liverpool-Manchester Railway was built, and the railway company offered a prize of 500 for the best steam loco. The prize was won by George Stephenson with his famous train. Though not the first such locomotive, it was the beginning of the effective use of steam power for passenger and freight transportation. At first many people were afraid of the railways; nevertheless in 1842 the steam-powered railways were already in wide use in Britain .

Part 2 Railroads were born in England, a country of dense population, short distances, and large financial resources. In England problems were very different from those in America, which in the early 1800s was a country of great distances, sparse population, and limited capital. Americans had to learn to build railroads for their own country by actual experience; they could not copy English methods .

In the USA the first railroads were built in mines for carrying stone or coal. In 1804 Oliver Evans (who had built an amphibious steam-powered scow with wheels) declared that he could “make a steam carriage that will run at a speed of 15 miles per hour on good, level railways.” As early as 1812 Colonel John Stevens, of Hoboken, N.J., began to speak for a new kind of railway. He wanted one that would provide long-distance transportation, linking distant areas of the country. In 1815 Stevens obtained the first charter to build a railroad across New Jersey, but he was unable to raise the money needed to build it. The first common carrier railroad to be built in the United States was the Baltimore and Ohio. It was chartered in 1827 and construction started on July 4, 1828 .

The first steam locomotive to run in the United States, the English-built Stourbridge Lion, made a trial trip over the tracks of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company in Pennsylvania in 1829. On the day of a test trip a lot of people came from miles around the small Pennsylvania town to see the first run of the steam locomotive. The engineer2 refused to let anyone ride with him – perhaps because the engine had not been tested before. As the signal to start was given, there was a moment of suspense. Then, slowly, the wheels began to turn. Cheers went up as engineer Allen opened the throttle3 wide and began his historic trip. All along the route, men were waving their hats, small boys were shouting, and women were looking in amazement as the Lion thundered past at the fantastic speed of ten miles per hour. Who would have believed that anything so big could move so fast without a horse to pull it! But the engine was too heavy for the track and the trip was not repeated .

In the summer of 1830 service began on the Baltimore and Ohio line, with horses providing the power. Finally, in December 1830 an American-built locomotive, the Best Friend of Charleston, hauled a train of cars on the tracks of the South Carolina Railroad. The railroad had come to America .

Railroads spread rapidly in the eastern and southern United States, with short lines being merged to form through routes. By the mid-1850s, railways linked the Atlantic seaboard and the Midwest .

In 1869 the first transcontinental route was completed to the Pacific coast. Railroads became the dominant mode of overland transportation in the last half of the 19th century. Faster and more powerful locomotives and larger freight and passenger cars were built. Standardization of track gauges and the adoption of standard time zones aided efficiency. The invention of air brakes4, automatic signaling, and the automatic coupler5 increased safety. Sleeping cars and dining cars increased passenger comfort and convenience .

Notes: common carrier railroad – железная дорога общего пользования engineer – зд: машинист throttle – дроссель, дроссельная заслонка air brake – воздушный тормоз automatic coupler – автосцепка Ex.25. Answer the following questions .

1) What does the word ‘transport’ mean? 2) Who said that “transportation is civilization”?

3) How many stages is the history of transport divided into? 4) Did the second stage in the history of transport begin with the invention of the wheel? 5) Whom was the first steam engine invented by?

6) Did Thomas Savery improve the inefficient steam engine designed by Thomas Newcomen?

7) Where did James Watt install his engine? 8) Who made one of the first attempts to put a steam engine on wheels? 9) Where was the world’s first common carrier railroad to use steam power built?

10) Did Robert Stephenson design and built the first common carrier railway in Britain? 11) Why didn’t the British Parliament want to build railways? 12) When was the Liverpool-Manchester Railway put into operation? 13) What can you say about the locomotive called the Rocket?

Ex.26. True or false? Correct the statements which do not correspond to the contents of the text (part 2) .

1) In the early 1800s America was a country of great distances, dense population, and large capital. 2) Americans learnt to build railroads by coping English methods of construction. 3) The first American railroads were built in large cities for carrying passengers. 4) In 1812 John Stevens obtained the first charter to build a railroad across New Jersey, but he was unable to raise the money needed for its building. 5) The first common carrier railroad to be built in the United States was the Baltimore and Ohio line. 6) The Baltimore-Ohio railroad opened for traffic in the summer of 1830 was horse-powered. 7) The first steam locomotive to run in the United States was the English-built Rocket. 8) In 1829 the American-built locomotive called the Stourbridge Lion made a trial trip in Pennsylvania. 9) The engineer of the Lion refused to let anyone ride with him. 10) The speed of the Stourbridge Lion was twenty miles per hour. 11) 11) The first American-built locomotive called the Best Friend of Charleston was put into operation on the tracks of the South Carolina Railroad .

–  –  –

Ex.28. You know that there are various types of engines, such as: the water-powered engine, the wind-powered engine, the steam engine, the internal combustion engine (diesel, petrol, electric, jet). Read the following sentences and say which type of the engine is described .

1) In this engine fuel ignites and burns inside the engine itself and not in a furnace .

2) This engine is very economical; it doesn't need fuel to function. But it is dependent on the weather .

3) In this engine there is a furnace and a boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or coal and then lit .

The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam .

4) It was a wheel but a very small one. Long wide wooden blades were attached to it. The wheel was driven by the wind .

5) This engine is too large and heavy; it needs too much fuel .

6) This engine is an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it and the current of a river turned it. It was used for irrigating fields .

7) This engine is lighter and smaller than a steam engine because it doesn't have a boiler. It is more powerful than a steam engine because it uses better-quality fuel: petrol or kerosene .

8) The power of this engine depends on the quantity of coal. The more coal is put into the furnace, the stronger the fire is burning. The more steam there is the faster a train is moving .

9) This engine is the most ecologically friendly one, because it doesn't pollute environment with exhausted gases .

10) This engine is now used in automobiles, diesel locos and motor ships .

11) This engine is the most powerful, because the gases in it reach the temperature of over a thousand degrees .

Ex.29. Translate the following texts: (a) from Russian into English and (b) from English into Russian (do it in written form) .

(a) НАЧАЛО СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВА ЖЕЛЕЗНЫХ ДОРОГ В РОССИИ

Строительство железных дорог в России началось во второй половине 18 века. Первые вагонеточные пути были проложены на Урале. Они использовались для перевозки угля с шахт на Колывано-Воскресенский завод (Kolyvano-Voskresensk Works). Как рельсы, так и шпалы были сделаны из дерева. Уголь перевозили в деревянных тележках (a wooden hand-cart), которые назывались «собаками», потому что скрип несмазанных колёс (the creak of unlubricated wheels) был похож на визг (a squeal) собаки. Следует упомянуть, что тележки приводились в движение водяным колесом, в то время как в Европе основной движущей силой был ручной труд .

Такие русские изобретатели, как А.С. Ярцев, отец и сын Фроловы, сыграли важную роль в истории строительства железных дорог. Ярцев предложил заменить деревянные рельсы чугунными и в 1788 году построил первую «чугунку» на артиллерийском заводе (Gun Works) в Петрозаводске. 30 лет спустя другая железная дорога с чугунными рельсами была проложена в Алтайских горах инженером Фроловым. Её длина была 2 км. Железная дорога приводилась в движение лошадьми. Следует заметить, что лошади заменили (труд) около 500 рабочих .

Следующий этап в истории железнодорожного транспорта в России начался с изобретения парового двигателя. Он был изобретён И.И. Ползуновым, а отец и сын Черепановы построили первый паровоз. Он двигался со скоростью 13-16 км в час и мог перевозить 3.3 т грузов и 40 пассажиров. Первый паровоз был испытан в Нижнем Тагиле. Л.Гумилёвский писал в своей книге «Русские инженеры»: «Нижнетагильскую железную дорогу, сооружённую русскими мастерами, из русских материалов, по проекту русских изобретателей следует считать (should be considered) первой русской железной дорогой» .

(b) THE OLDEST RAILWAY IN RUSSIA

The St.Petersburg–Moscow mainline is considered to be the oldest and the most outstanding railway in Russia .

In the thirties of the 19th century much was spoken about the necessity of its construction and various projects were proposed by Pravdin, Safonov, Muravjov, Abaza, but all of them were rejected .

In June 1839, the professors of the Moscow Engineering Institute P.P.Melnikov and N.O. Kraft were sent to the USA for the purpose of studying experience gained by the Americans in constructing and operating the railways. Melnikov's report about the results of their trip laid down the basis of the future railway project .

According to this project «chugunka» was planned as a double-track line, 664 km long, with the 5 feet gauge (now the standard), steam powered. The speed of passenger and freight trains was supposed to be 34.4 km/h and 16 km/h respectively .

The construction began in 1843 and lasted 8 years. From the very beginning the builders faced many hardships because of severe climatic and difficult geological conditions. Hundreds of kilometers of track were laid down through forests and marshes, many rivers were crossed. It should be noted that the line is virtually straight and level. 185 bridges and 19 viaducts were built to make the line as straight as possible. There is a legend that the route of the railway was chosen by the tsar Nikolay I, who took the map and the ruler, drew a straight line between the two cities on the map and ordered this line to be the route of the railway. But the fact is that the construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work, a great part of which was done by P.P.Melnikov himself .

All the component parts of the track, bridges and viaducts were produced at Russian plants by using only domestic materials, including timber for sleepers and cast iron for rails .

One has to give credit [нужно отдать должное] to the first railway builders, who laid the track in extremely difficult conditions. They worked from dawn till sunset, often in water up to their knees and their main tools were spades and axes. P.P. Melnikov proposed to mechanize the railway construction, but his idea was not backed up because it required a lot of expenses., Nevertheless, four excavators were bought in the USA on Melnikov's recommendation. It is interesting to note that at that time there were only seven excavators in the world. The other three ones were operated in the USA and Great Britain .

The railway was officially opened for public traffic on November 1, 1851. The first train departed from St.Petersburg at 11.15 and arrived in Moscow 21 hours 45 minutes later. There were 17 passengers in the first-class cars, 63 – in the second-class cars and 112 – in the third-class cars. The speed of the first trains was 40 km/h but two years later it was increased up to 60 km/h. It was the world's record in the speed of passenger trains. It should be added that the Alexander Engineering Works was established in St. Petersburg to provide this railway with locomotives and cars .

Ex.30. Answer the following questions .

1) When were the first projects of the railway construction proposed? 2) Why was it necessary to connect the two capitals in Russia? 3) Whose project of construction was accepted? 4) Why were Melnikov and Kraft sent to America? 5) When did the construction begin? 6) How long did the construction last? 7) Why was it difficult to build the railway? 8) What was built to make the line as straight as possible? 9) Is there any legend about the construction? 10) What were the rails and sleepers made of? 11) What equipment was used for the construction? 12) What was done to facilitate the workers' labor? 13) When was the railway officially opened for public traffic? 14) What time did the first train depart from St. Petersburg and arrive in Moscow? 15) How many passengers were there in the first train? 16) What was its speed? 17) What plant was established to provide this railway with rolling stock?

Ex.31. Arrange the following sentences in a chronological order, put questions to the underlined words. Using your questions tell about the beginning of railway construction in Russia .

1) The first steam locomotive was tested in Nizhniy Tagil. 2) The first railway carrying passengers was officially opened for public traffic in 1851. 3) Such engineers as P.K. Frolov, A.S. Yartsev, and I.I. Polsunov made great contribution to the development of railway transport in Russia. 4) The first tram ways were laid down in the Urals. 5) The history of railway construction in Russia began in the second half of the 18'h century. 6) I.I. Polsunov invented the stationary steam engine in 1763. 7) At the beginning of the 19th century it was decided to build the railway connecting two Russian capitals .

8) A.S. Yartsev suggested using cast iron rails instead of wooden ones in 1788. 9) The Cherepanovs constructed the first steam locomotive. 10) Goods were transported in carts driven by the water wheel .

11) The construction of the St.Petersburg-Moscow line began in 1843 and lasted eight years. 12) The first tram ways were used for carrying coal, ore and other goods. 13) The railway constructed by P.K .

Frolov was horse-powered. 14) P.K. Frolov built “chugunka” in the Altai Mountains .

Ex.32. Complete the sentences and add your own information to develop the situation .

1) The history of railway construction…. 2) The first tram ways…. 3) The first rails and sleepers…. 4) Coal and other goods…. 5) In the Western Europe the carts with coal were driven by the workers, but in Russia…. 6) The wooden carts were called…. 7) Much was done for the railway construction by…. 8) Yartsev suggested replacing…. 9) The first railway with cast iron rails…. 10) The Cherepanovs, father and son…. 11) The first steam engine…. 12) The first steam locomotive could…. 13) The Nizhniy Tagil railway… .

TEXT B Below there are four texts about famous people of Great Britain and the USA. Choose any text you like, read it and make up the list of the words you don’t know. Look up the meaning of the unknown words in your dictionary. Be careful because one of your group-mates will translate the text you have chosen without a dictionary, using only the list of words you have written out .

THE STEPHENSON FAMILY

George Stephenson was born on June 9, 1781, in the mining village of Wylam, Northumberland, England. He went to work as a horse-driver in a coal-mine at an early age and without formal schooling. At nineteen George was put to work on a steam engine. Now he had time to learn reading and writing. In 1814 Stephenson made a design of the Blocher, one of the first railroad locomotives. But George couldn’t build it because he had no money. In 1815 he patented an engine with a steam blast1, by which exhaust steam was redirected up the chimney. The new design increased the engines power and made the locomotive truly practical. In the same year Stephenson also invented a safety lamp for miners .

In 1822 he was commissioned to build a steam locomotive for a railroad line to be built from Stockton to Darlington. His son, Robert, assisted him in survey work for the tracks, and on Sept. 27, 1825, the railroad was opened for public traffic. In 1823 George Stephenson established a locomotive works in Newcastle. George and Robert then cooperated in the construction of a railway connecting Liverpool and Manchester. In 1829, the railway company held a competition to find a suitable locomotive for the line; George and Robert won the contest with the Rocket, an engine with a multi-tubular boiler2. George Stephenson died in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, on Aug. 12, 1848 .

Robert Stephenson was George’s only son. He was born in Willington Quay, Northumberland, on Oct. 16, 1803. He studied mathematics at Bruce’s Academy in Newcastle upon Tyne and later attended Edinburgh University. He managed the Newcastle locomotive works and in 1833 was appointed chief engineer of the London and Birmingham Railway, the first railway into London. He directed several major engineering works, but he is best known for his long-span railroad bridges3 .

Robert died in London on Oct. 12, 1859 .

George Robert Stephenson (1819–1905), a civil engineer4 educated at King William College on the Isle of Man, entered his uncle George Stephenson's employ in 1837 during the construction of a railway from Manchester to Leeds. He helped Robert build the Victoria Bridge across the St .

Lawrence River in Canada and served as a consultant and designer on independent projects in England and abroad. Upon Robert's death in 1859, George Robert became director of the Newcastle locomotive works .

Notes: steam blast – выхлоп пара multi-tubular boiler – многотрубный паровой котёл bridge span – пролёт моста civil engineer – инженер строитель

THE BRUNELS FAMILY

Two engineers whose inventions had a major influence on transportation methods were Marc Isambard Brunel and his only son, Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Marc solved the historic problem of underwater tunneling. Isambard, a civil1 and mechanical engineer, was the designer of the first transatlantic steamer .

Marc Isambard Brunel was born on April 25, 1769, in Hacqueville, France. Because of his Royalist sympathies, he fled to the United States in 1793 during the French Revolution. He held the post of chief engineer of New York .

After Brunel improved a method for loading ships by mechanical means, rather than by hand, he sailed to England in 1799 to market his plans to the British government. A prolific inventor, he also designed machines for sawing timber, boot making, knitting, and printing. In 1818, in his practice as a civil engineer, he patented the tunneling shield2, a device that made safe underwater tunneling possible. In 1825 operations began for building the Brunel-designed tunnel under the Thames River .

This project, which had no precedent, was completed in 1842, after great physical and financial difficulties. Brunel, who was knighted for his engineering feat, died in London on Dec. 12, 1849 .

Isambard Kingdom Brunel was born in Portsmouth, England, on April 9, 1806. At the age of 19 he was appointed resident-engineer3 when work on the Thames Tunnel began. Later he served as engineer at the Bristol Docks and also designed several other docks in England. In 1833 he was appointed chief engineer to the Great Western Railway. His introduction of the broad-gauge railway, with tracks 7 feet (2 meters) apart, made possible high speeds that helped stimulate rail progress. Brunel was responsible for building railways in Great Britain and Italy and served as an adviser on projects in Australia and India .

The younger Brunel's outstanding contributions to marine engineering were his three ships, each the largest in the world at its launching date. The Great Western (1837), a wooden paddle vessel4, was the first steamship to provide regular transatlantic service. The Great Britain (1843) was the first large vessel driven by a screw propeller. The Great Eastern (1858) achieved fame by laying the first successful transatlantic cable. During the Crimean War, he designed a complete prefabricated hospital building that was shipped in parts to the Crimea and a floating armored barge that was used in warfare. Isambard Brunel died on Sept. 15, 1859, in London .

Notes: civil engineer – инженер строитель tunneling shield – туннельный щит resident-engineer – прораб paddle vessel – колёсное судно GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE (1846 – 1914) “If I understand you, young man, you propose to stop a railroad train with wind. I have no time to listen to such nonsense.” Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt, the powerful railroad owner, thus dismissed George Westinghouse and his new air brake. But within a few years the old hand brakes on trains were replaced with air brakes, launching Westinghouse into a notable career as inventor and industrialist .

Westinghouse was born on Oct. 6, 1846, in Central Bridge, N.Y. (the USA). The son of a manufacturer of farm implements, he explored the world of machines at an early age. After serving in both the Union Army and the Navy in the Civil War, Westinghouse received in 1865 his first patent—for a rotary steam engine. In that same year he invented a device for replacing derailed1 freight cars on their tracks. Railroad problems fascinated Westinghouse. Among his other inventions was a device called a frog that allowed wheels on one rail of a track to cross an intersecting rail. He bought various patents on railroad switches2 and signals and combined them with his own developments into an efficient switching system. The air brake, his greatest invention, was patented in 1869, the same year he organized the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. With various design improvements, the air brake became widely accepted, and the Railroad Safety Appliance Act of 1893 made them compulsory on trains in the United States .

Westinghouse was chiefly responsible for the adoption of alternating current (AC)3 systems for electric power transmission in the United States, which up to the 1880s had used direct current (DC)4 systems. Importing an AC system from Europe, Westinghouse purchased the patents of Nikola Tesla’s AC motor and hired him to improve and modify the motor for use in the power system. Once the new system was ready, advocates of DC power set out to discredit AC power .

Public acceptance of AC power came soon after Westinghouse dramatically proved its advantages at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893). Using incandescent lighting, the fairground was set aglow with light. With buildings set like jewels against the evening sky, the display marked the start of large-scale outdoor lighting and of illuminated advertising signs .

Most of the Westinghouse factories were located in Pittsburgh and associated companies were established throughout the world. Westinghouse lost most of his control over his industrial empire during the financial panic of 1907. He died in New York City on March 12, 1914 .

Notes: 1 to derail – сходить с рельсов switch – стрелочный перевод alternating current – переменный ток direct current – постоянный ток CASEY JONES (1864 – 1900) Casey Jones was the great American locomotive engineer hero who would not save1 his own life but died doing his duty. Casey worked as an engineer of the American train the Cannon-ball which ran between Tennessee and Mississippi on Illinois Central Railroad. He was a skilful engine-driver and always brought the train in on time. Casey was skilful with the whistle too – the locomotive whistle. He had a special way of blowing it: beginning very softly, rising to a shriek, and dying away. It would2 made people’s hair stand on end3 as the train passed by in the night. “There Casey is going,” they said .

On the night of April 29, 1900 when Casey had just finished his own run and brought the Cannon-ball into the town on time, he was said that the engineer of another train fell ill and couldn’t make his run. Casey offered to substitute his friend and pulled the train out of the station at 11 p.m .

The train was already one hour and thirty-five minutes late at the start .

Casey wanted to make up the time4 and he ran his locomotive at a high speed. By four o’clock in the morning he had made up most of the time, but suddenly in front of his engine, as he came round a curve, he saw a standing freight train on the rails .

“Jump, Sim,” he cried .

Sim Webb, fireman to Casey Jones, jumped and lived to tell the story. Casey’s body was found with one hand still on the whistle and one on the air-brake .

There is a monument to Casey Jones in his native town in Kentucky. In 1950 the United States Government put out a three-cent stamp in honor of American railroad engineers, which has the portrait of Casey Jones and a picture of the old Locomotive 382 .

Notes: would not save – не захотел спасти would – зд: бывало to stand on end – вставать дыбом to make up the time – наверстать время TEXT C Read the text putting the verbs in brackets into the correct form of Past Indefinite Active or Past Indefinite Passive. Translate the text .

THE TRANS-SIBERIAN MAINLINE

Siberia is a vast expanse of land that stretches across Russia from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. In the 19th century Siberia [to be] Russia’s frontier—thinly populated, largely unexplored, yet possessing vast economic potential. Settlement in the region [to remain] sparse until the building of the unique Trans-Siberian Railroad, which [to connect] the European part of the country with the Pacific Coast and [to make] large-scale immigration possible .

According to Minister of Railways S.Yu. Witte: “The Great Siberian Railway [to breathe] new life into boundless Siberian lands.” The history of railway construction in Russia [to start] at the end of the 19th century. Railway mainlines [to lay down] from the Western borders of the country to St. Petersburg and Moscow, from the center to the Volga region and from the Urals to Central Asia. In 1892 the railway network in Russia [to have] a total length of 32,000 km. That very year Samara-Zlatoust railway [to build] which later became a liaison between railways in the European part of Russia and the TransSiberian Mainline .

On March 15, 1891 Alexander III [to issue] an imperial prescript addressed to future Emperor Nicholay II which [to state]: “I command to start constructing a railway across all Siberia to connect the Siberian region with the European part of Russia. I also entrust you with ground-breaking1 of the Great Siberian Track in Vladivostok.” Two projects of the future mainline [to propose] – “the southern version” and “the northern version”. “The northern version” suggested by the Minister of Railways K.N. Posyet [to win] .

According to his project the railway [to be] shorter by 400 km and was passing by the Siberian high road2 and populated areas .

The building of the Great Siberian Track [to begin] in 1893. Work [to start] at the same time from both the eastern and western terminals. The plan originally [to call] for an all-Russian road, but a treaty with China in 1896 [to enable] the Russians to construct an 800-mile (1,300-kilometer) line through Manchuria, thus shortening the distance to Vladivostok. After Manchuria [to pass] to Japanese hands following the Russian-Japanese War of 1904—05, the Russians [to proceed] with a longer railway entirely on their own territory. Construction rates [to be] very fast despite the fact that the railroad [to go] through swamps, thick taiga, [to cross] major rivers and huge mountains .

One of the main obstacles to completion of the line [to be] Lake Baikal, where there [to be] ferry service. A loop around the lakeshore [to complete] in 1905. By 1916 the Amur River line north of the Chinese border [to finish], and there [to be] a continuous railway on Russian land from Moscow across Siberia. In less than 25 years more than 8,600 km of track [to lay down] .

The building of the gigantic mainline [to be] a heroic deed accomplished by Russian construction workers thanks to their tenacious efforts and courage. At first 10,000 workers [to take part] in the construction. Later, their number [to go up] to 100,000. Some of Trans-Siberian stations bear their names – Rukhlovo, Vyazemskaya, Baranovsky, Snarsky, Adrinovka, etc .

Notes: ground-breaking – начало строительства (дороги) high road – тракт Ex.32. True or false? Correct the false statements .

1) The Trans-Siberian Mainline connects the Asian part of Russia with the Pacific Coast. 2) Alexander III commanded to start constructing the Great Siberian Track. 3) Six projects of the construction were proposed. 4) The project of the Minister of Railways Witte won. 5) The first rail of the future Trans-Siberian Railway was laid down in Vladivostok. 6) The length of this railway is more than 80,600 km. 7) About 5,000 workers took part in the mainline construction. 8) The track went through swamps and taiga. 9) One of the main obstacles to completion of the line was the Pacific Ocean. 10) The construction lasted 15 years. 11) The Great Siberian Railway breathed new life into boundless Siberian lands. 12) The building of the gigantic mainline was a heroic deed accomplished by English construction workers TEXT D Read and translate the text using a dictionary. Pay special attention to the words and word combinations in bold and guess their meaning .

THE RISE AND FALL OF THE AMERICAN RAIL SYSTEM

[1] The American people and its history have a “love-hate” relationship to the railroad .

Without the railroad, the “Wild West” would not have been settled as quickly as it was. Was this a good or a bad thing? Ask an average Native American and then ask an average White American. The railroads eventually put the cowboys out of business, too. The American Civil War came to a close, in part, because the Union had an extensive railroad system and the Confederacy did not. Ask an American from Louisiana what s/he thinks about the Northern victory and then ask someone from Massachusetts. But to move to a more contemporary question, ask someone from New York if they would rather fly to Los Angeles or take a train there. What would you rather do if you had to get from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok?

[2] Steam railways began to appear in the East of the USA in the 1820s. At that time, it was more of a novelty than an efficient transportation method. If you were a merchant or a bold immigrant and wanted to move west, you went by boat. The first use of the locomotive for passenger transport was on Christmas day, 1930, in Charleston, South Carolina. Within the next decade 4,480 km had been laid, mainly within states along the Atlantic seaborder. As the new nation grew to the Midwest in the 1850s, tracks totaled 14,400 km in length and by 1860 track length had almost tripled to 48,000 km. Immigration to cities like Chicago grew because of the railroads. By 1860 the sheer amount of track in the USA almost equaled the total track length of the world’s countries combined. In essence, the railroad helped America grow industrially .

Population rates increased dramatically .

[3] As mentioned above, the Confederacy lost the Civil War because it simply did not have the rail or industrial power that the Union did. Much of the Union strategy was based on cutting the rail lines between Confederate States. After 1865 to about 1914, the real Golden Age of American Rail reigned. On May 10, 1869, the Atlantic Coast was linked to the Pacific Coast in Promontory, Utah. Year round, passengers and merchants could travel/send goods from coast to coast. By 1885, a series of 4 similar rail lines sprung into action, one of which caused the decline of cattle driving cowboys when lines dipped down into Texas. No longer did cowboys need to drive their herds north – now the train could do it quicker and cheaper .

[4] The railways profoundly shaped the United States and continued to do so until about the 1930s. From that point on until the mid-seventies, road and air transport competed with the train and slowly caused many lines to go out of business. In the 1970s, for example, 10 major lines went bankrupt and the Federal Government bought a good portion of this dying service industry. The new system was called Amtrak and provided passenger service between major urban centers .

[5] Today, however, most Americans prefer to travel by plane. Prices for long distance flights are just slightly higher or equal to train tickets to the same destination. Factor in the time passengers save by flying, plus convenience, and you can easily see why American rail can never be what it once was. Although people prefer to travel quickly and comfortably by air, freight goods are still transported by rail .

LESSON FOUR UNDERGROUND RAILWAYS

Ex.1. Practice the reading .

ou, ow amount, council, dismount, announce, discount, fountain, soundproof, compound, layout, output, found, pronounce, about, bounty, accountancy, shout, proud, boundary, aloud, arouse, paramount, power, crowd, downtown, gown, glower, powder;

owing, own, narrow, borrow, rainbow, arrow, shallow, blow, flow, follow, grow, below;

BUT: group, route, could, would, should, acoustic; double, couple, trouble, country, touch, courage; soul .

ere, ure, are, ire (yre), ore merely, atmosphere, here, sincere, adhere;

cure, demure, premature, secure, endure, purely, mature;

declare, software, carefully, beware, barely, prepare, compare, square, share, fare, rarely, mare, aware, stare, dare;

desire, tire, tyre, entire, requirement, hire, firework, esquire, satire, wireless, retired, acquire, inquire;

core, explore, moreover, restore, store, therefore, score, bore, semaphore, shore, adore .

Words and word combinations to be remembered

1) to accommodate – вмещать

2) capacity – мощность, вместимость, грузоподъемность carrying capacity – пропускная способность

3) to carry out – выполнять, осуществлять

4) to control – управлять control – управление

5) to cost – стоить cost – цена, стоимость costs – расходы, издержки

6) current – ток alternative current (a. c.) – переменный ток direct current (d. c.) – постоянный ток

7) to damage – повреждать, причинять ущерб damage – повреждение, ущерб

8) empty – пустой, порожний

9) to ensure – гарантировать; обеспечивать

10) fleet – парк (подвижного состава)

11) to follow – следовать, соблюдать (правила)

12) to heat – обогревать heating – отопление

13) length – длина, протяженность

14) to install – устанавливать installation – установка

15) to introduce – внедрять, вводить (в эксплуатацию) introduction – внедрение, ввод

16) to maintain – эксплуатировать, содержать в технически исправном состоянии;

поддерживать maintenance – содержание в технически исправном состоянии, эксплуатация

17) to protect – защищать protection – защита

18) to reduce – сокращать reduction – сокращение

19) safe – безопасный safety – безопасность

20) surface – наземный; поверхность

21) total – полный, общий, целый

22) therefore – поэтому, следовательно

23) volume – объем

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Ex.3. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian paying attention to the italicized words .

The total area of the Earth surface is about 500 million square kilometers. 2) New freight transportation rates have been recently introduced in this country. 3) Air-conditioning system in a railway car ensures constant supply of fresh air in hot weather and heating the entire saloon in cold weather. 4) The maintenance cost of a diesel locomotive is three times greater than that of an electric locomotive. 5) The frequency of electric current is 50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the USA. 6) He drove through streets empty of traffic. 7) An impact-resistant windscreen will reduce the risk of injury to the driver in the case of any accident. 8) The damaged ship was being towed into the harbor when the towline broke. 9) The railway line follows the river for several miles. 10) These electric wires are protected by a rubber covering. 11) The task of traffic police is to provide safety on roads .

12) Railway transport is one of the cheapest ways of carrying freight over long distances. 13) If you buy more than 10 books we'll reduce the cost of each book by 10%. 14) Safety belts can lower the risk of trauma in road accident. 15) I am afraid it isn't possible to install central heating because your house is too old .

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Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words. Be careful with Grammar .

1) In some countries there are special paths for bicycles which make cycling a ___ means of transport. 2) On this dangerous section of track trains usually ___ their speed. 3) Nowadays electricity is used for lighting and ___ of passenger coaches. 4) After the reconstruction of the railway, the speed of trains will be increased and ___ of the line will be raised. 5) Every driver must ___ the traffic rules. 6) ___ of a better technology will save both time and labor. 7) This equipment should be carried in box cars because it requires ___ against the weather. 8) There is a lot of snow, ___ the trains might be late. 9) This tank has ___ of 40 liters. 10) The ___ station of the Samara Metro is called “Yungorodok”. 11) The ___ length of all railway lines in Russia is equal to three times the ___ of the Equator. 12) The ___ of operating a line depends on the weight of the trains, a number of stops, ___ and other factors. 13) Large electric diagrams showing the routes of trains ___ in the London Underground. 14) Our ___ have doubled in the last five years as a result of the increase in oil prices .

Ex.5. Replace the Russian words by their English equivalents. Be careful with Grammar .

Translate the sentences .

1) You must [уменьшать] the speed on slippery roads in winter. 2) The ore [перевозить] from the mine to the processing plant by ship. 3) You need extra [отопление] in the house – especially during the winter months. 4) The project of the Helsinki-St.Petersburg railway reconstruction envisages [рельсовый путь] modernization and the [установка] of the [безопасность] systems and remote control systems. 5) The [вместимость] of the lorry was large enough to hold a motor car. 6) The trains operating on the underground lines are provided with low voltage [постоянный ток]. 7) The total [протяжённость] of the bridge built across the Volga at Saratov is about 2 miles. 8) This automobile can be used as a route taxi because it [вмещать] 10 passengers. 9) The USA ranks first in the world in the [объём] of freight traffic. 10) After the reconstruction of this line track maintenance [стоимость] will be greatly reduced. 11) The automatic train [управление] facilitates the work of a locomotive driver and [обеспечивать] more reliable [движение] of a train. 12) Both [постоянный] and [переменный ток] may be used on electrified railways .

13) New models of lightweight carriages [вводить в эксплуатацию] on the Japanese Railways .

They consume 50% less [энергия] than the old models. 14) In the 19th century the railway tunnels were made as small as possible to reduce construction [расходы] .

Ex.6. Choose the correct word and translate the sentences .

1) Although the gas-turbine engine is smaller and lighter than the diesel engine, it has greater [volume; service life; capacity; cost] .

2) The driver of the bus is responsible for his passengers’ [costs; fares; maintenance; safety] .

3) The passengers were informed of the flight’s [delay; damage; protection; length] .

4) An experimental undersea telephone cable in the Canary Islands had to be lifted from the ocean floor three times because it was [protected; installed; damaged; maintained] by sharks .

5) This equipment should be carried in a box car for it requires [protection; heating; safety;

damage] against the weather .

6) Automatic ticket-selling machines are being [controlled, installed; protected; carried] at the large terminals for the improvement of passenger service .

7) Fasten your [total; control; protection; safety] belts and don't smoke – the plane is taking off!

8) The telephone lines [installed; ensured; damaged; introduced] in the last night’s storm are being repaired .

9) One trip in the New York subway [costs; accommodates; lasts; carries out] between 85 cents and $2.25

10) People should start and finish work at different time to [reduce; increase; maintain; follow] the peak hour traffic jams .

GRAMMAR REVIEW

(Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect Active and Passive;

Participle I, Participle II) Ex.7. Read and translate the following sentences. State the tense and voice form of the predicates .

1) The Ukrainian government has decided to resume the construction of the metro, which was stopped because of financial difficulties. A lottery is being organized and 40% of its income will be used to fund the work. 2) The newspaper published the article about a brave engine driver who saved the passengers from a bad accident at risk of his own life. 3) The new supersonic aircraft that looks like a rocket will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than 2 hours. 4) Steel sleepers are particularly valued in desert and tropical regions because great variations in day and night temperatures do not affect them. 5) Japanese Railways has banned the passengers to use their cellular telephones on its commuter trains. The railway company has recently received a lot of complaints because passengers speaking on their mobile telephones are shouting too loud and disturbing others. 6) It was snowing heavily and I couldn’t make out the number of the tram. When I had covered several tram stops, I realized that I got on the wrong tram. 7) Mr. Davis was very nervous when the airplane was taking off because he had never flown before. 8) I was standing at the tram-stop when it began raining. 9) The water was heated to the boiling point .

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*The results of the test: If your score is 13-15 correct answers, you are doing just great; 10-12 stand for good knowledge; 7-9 mean you have some problems; if the number of your correct answers is less than 7, go and learn the rules .

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Ex.10. Read and translate the following sentences using the predicates in the required tense and voice forms .

1) In Great Britain a first-class ticket [to cost – Present Indefinite Active] 50% more than a second-class ticket .

2) They [to give – Past Indefinite Active] him no explanation why the experiment [to stop – Past Perfect Passive] .

3) I [to prefer – Present Indefinite Active] to buy tickets in advance .

4) During the last 5 years traffic on Britain’s roads [to increase – Present Perfect Active] by 27 per cent .

5) The equipment [to deliver – Future Indefinite Passive] in containers from door-to-door .

6) Train fares [to increase – Present Perfect Passive] several times during the past year .

7) The construction of both the bridge and the dam [to complete – Future Perfect Passive] by the beginning of the navigation season .

8) The problem of the old terminal reconstruction [to discuss – Present Continuous Passive] now .

9) The permanent way [to consist – Present Indefinite Active] of rails, sleepers and ballast .

10) The distance between rails [to call – Present Indefinite Passive] the gauge .

11) Be careful! The train [to approach – Present Continuous Active] the station!

12) He appeared on the platform just as the train [to pull out – Past Continuous Active] .

13) A.S. Yartsev [to suggest – Past Indefinite Active] using cast iron rails instead of wooden ones in 1788 .

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Ex.13. Analyze the functions of Participles I in the following phrases and complete the sentences .

1) (When) discussing the project…; 2) Scientists discussing the project…; 3) The scientists were discussing the project…; 4) Having discussed the project… .

1) Having repaired the engine…; 2) The mechanic repairing engines…; 3) (While) repairing the engine…; 4) The mechanic is repairing… .

1) The workers constructing the railway…; 2) Constructing the railway…; 3) Having constructed the railway…; 4) The workers will be constructing… .

1) Installing the new equipment…; 2) Having installed the new equipment…; 3) He is installing…. 4) The firm installing this equipment… .

1) (While) carrying out the experiment…; 2) The scientists carrying out the experiment… .

3) The scientists are carrying out…. 4) Having carried out the experiment…;

Ex.14. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to Participles I .

1) The road joining the two villages is very narrow. 2) Driving a car in the rush hours, you must be very attentive because traffic is very heavy. 3) Having built the world’s first electric locomotive, Werner von Siemens demonstrated it at the Berlin Exhibition. 4) The first Metro trains were driven by steam locomotives which burnt coal, filling the tunnels with smoke. 5) All trains operating on the suburban lines are driven by electricity. 6) Each railway station has at least two tracks, those for the incoming and outcoming trains. 7) Having arrived two days before the conference, he had a lot of time to see London. 8) The number and the spacing of the sleepers depend on the weight of trains passing over the track. 9) The volume of passenger transportation is increased in summertime because many people spend their holidays, traveling all over the country or abroad. 10) They stopped their experiments having obtained the necessary results. 11) Chinese Railways lifted the maximum speed of passenger services to 140 km/h on seven key routes radiating from Beijing (Пекин). 12) Passengers leaving for London were invited to register and weigh their luggage .

13) While unloading the car we found a few broken boxes. 14) The leading role of the railway transport in Russia is explained by the specific territorial, climatic and geographical conditions .

15) When constructing the railway, it is cheaper to use local materials. 16) People living near airports suffer from the noise of taking off and landing jet airliners. 17) In 1840 the USA had 2,800 miles of railroad tracks consisting mainly of short lines. 18) Having measured the distance between two points, we can calculate the time a car can cover it, if we know the car’s average speed .

Ex.15. Read and translate the following sentences replacing the Russian words by their English equivalents .

1) The Oktyabrskaya Railway offers additional discounts for passengers [путешествующих] to Finland with children under the age of 17. 2) We spent an hour or two, [разговаривая] to our friends. 3) [Построив] the dam, they protected the village against flood. 4) In 1786, William Murdock, an English engineer, constructed a [работающую] model of a small steam locomotive .

5) The journey from London to Norwich (184 km) takes exactly two hours, [включая] stops .

6) [Увидев] the green light, we crossed the street. 7) Freight trains [состоящие] of more than 80 cars are hauled by two locomotives. 8) [Ожидая] for the train arrival, I looked through the magazines [лежащие] on the table. 9) [Получив] the telegram she immediately left for Glasgow .

10) At the stop we saw a lot of people [ожидавших] for the bus. 11) Ships are equipped with radar sets [помогающими] them to orient at sea. 12) A new road [соединяющая] the plant with the railway station is being built now. 13) [Оставив] our suitcases in the Left-Luggage Room we went to have a snack. 14) The workers were moving from car to car, carefully [осматривая] them .

15) The bright flowers [растущие] along the railroad track attracted the attention of all the passengers. 16) People [живущие] near railroad tracks often get so used to the sounds of [проходящий] trains that they rarely notice the noise, but their visiting friends can be quite distracted by it .

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Ex.17. Translate the phrasess given below into English. Pay attention to Participles II .

локомотив, приводимый в движение электричеством двигатель усовершенствованной конструкции железная дорога, построенная для высокоскоростных пассажирских перевозок застрахованный [to insure] автомобиль отремонтированный [to repair] участок пути цифры, упомянутые [to mention] в докладе полученный результат оборудование, установленное в лаборатории вокзал, реконструированный в прошлом году вагон, используемый для перевозки нефти новая станция метро, отделанная [to decorate] мрамором и бронзой машина, сконструированная молодым инженером экзамены, сданные успешно билеты, купленные заранее вещи, оставленные в камере хранения Ex.18. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to Participles II .

1) The first steam locomotive built by G. Stephenson could draw a small train of loaded cars at a speed of 13 miles per hour. 2) When reconstructed, the railway bridge will be used for the movement of heavy freight trains. 3) The new materials recommended for bridge construction were described in the article written by our professor. 4) I’m not sure that it is possible to repair this badly damaged car. 5) When drawn by an electric locomotive, the train may consist of more than 90 cars .

6) The first British petrol-driven car called “The Knight” moved at a speed of only 8 miles per hour .

7) The first steam engine invented by James Watt was installed in a machine at a large mine to pump out the water. 8) When heated by sun, the rails become longer. 9) The things left behind by passengers are usually taken to the Lost Property Office. 10) The first Siemens’s electric locomotive built in 1879 was so small that the driver straddled it like a horse but it could haul a train with 30 passengers. 11) During the test run the steam locomotive produced by Peter Cooper raced against a coach pulled by a horse. 12) Signals installed at frequent intervals along the whole mainline inform the engine drivers of the position of other trains. 13) If compared with electric locomotives, diesel locomotives have a higher maintenance cost. 14) Pieces of broken glass were seen everywhere .

15) Before opened for traffic, the railway lines are carefully inspected and tested. 16) The motor coaches are supplied with electric motors placed under the floor of the coach .

Ex.19. Read and translate the following sentences replacing the Russian words by their English equivalents .

1) One day people will be able to communicate by videophones [установленный] in every flat .

2) The engine [изобретённый] by Rudolf Diesel is one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. 3) A lot of scientists [приглашённый] to the conference refused to take part in it .

4) Kerosene is a fuel [используемый] in jet engines. 5) The mechanic said that he had replaced the [сломанный] part of the engine. 6) This engine radically differs both in construction and operation from the engine [разработанный] five years ago. 7) The Disneyland train [названный] “The Excursion” was built especially for carrying visitors through the Grand Canyon Diorama. 8) The diesel-electric locomotive has an internal combustion engine [присоединённый] to the driving wheels by electric transmission. 9) The TV set [купленный] a few days ago has broken down .

10) Cascade Tunnel is one of the longest railroad tunnels in the USA [расположенный] in central Washington was built in 1925-29 to replace shorter, more winding tunnel 11) In Japan the communication between some islands is provided through underwater tubes [проложенными] on the sea bottom. 12) The wagons with [изолированными] walls, roofs and floors are known as the refrigerator cars .

Ex.19. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to –ed forms .

1) The first television set produced quite a sensation in 1939. The first television set was produced in 1939. The first television set produced in 1939 was a tiny nine-by-twelve inch box .

2) The new car model developed by our student design bureau will be shown on TV. The new car model was developed by our student design bureau. The new car model developed a speed of 50 miles an hour. 3) The trains equipped with robot engine drivers operate on some underground lines .

4) The talks between these two presidents were conducted behind the closed doors. 5) The car suddenly stopped in the middle of the road. 6) The gas station on the highway was closed. 7) All the necessary information is stored in the computer. 8) When invented, the steam engine started the industrial revolution. 9) Toyota Co., a very successful Japanese company, has increased their sales to six million cars and trucks a year. 10) One of the main advantages of the diesel loco is the low cost of the fuel consumed. 11) Though conducted with great care, the test did not give the expected results. 12) New technologies reduce the number of workers needed. 13) Though first developed for military purposes, radar can be used in modern cars. 14) Most of the goods produced by this factory are exported. 15) He bought a used car, which broke down the next day. 16) The French military engineer Cugnot constructed the first three-wheeled machine equipped with a two-cylinder steam engine. This machine carried two people at a walking pace. 17) When asked why she had missed the train, she said something about her watch being slow .

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*The results of the test: If your score is 14-15 correct answers, you are doing just great; 11-13 stand for good knowledge; 8-10 mean you have some problems; if the number of your correct answers is less than 8, learn the rules .

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Ex.22. Say whether the right Participles are used in the following sentences. Correct the wrong ones. Be very attentive!

1) We were walked down the path leading to the station. 2) Don’t forget to oil the moving parts of the machine regularly. 3) Having missed the 10 o’clock train, he had to send a telegram to his friends waited for him. 4) The porter went in, carrying two suitcases. 5) It is impossible quickly to stop the train moving at such a high speed. 6) Worked as a clerk, painter and bus driver, Neil decided to go back to University. 7) Refrigerator cars are used for the transportation of freezing meat and other perishable commodities. 8) The received information was not correct. 9) When commenting on the recent developments in the Middle East, the correspondent presented a number of interesting facts. 10) Tank cars having transported gas or cement should be made of aluminum or stainless steel. 11) All the computers installed at our office were produced in Japan. 12) The Toyota Co. has recently deciding to spend $800 million a year on the development of the new electric automobile .

13) While crossed the street, I saw an accident. 14) When typing the article, she tried to be very attentive. 15) The plane had to make a forcing landing. 16) The Internet is a global computer network having millions of users all over the world. 17) They experimented with the device, not known that it was out of order. 18) Having taken the wrong bus, Tony found himself in an unfamiliar town .

TEXT A Before reading and translating the text match the Russian equivalents to the English word combinations (do it in written form) .

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Part 1 Depending on where in the world it is located, an underground electric-railway system may be called a subway, underground railway, tube, or metro. The underground railway is the quickest, safest, most reliable and comfortable means of city transport. Metro can solve the problems of carrying a great number of passengers within urban and suburban areas as well as the problems of traffic jams, air contamination and noise .

Subways are usually built under city streets, but in order to take shortcuts they often must pass under rivers. From the technical point of view the underground railway system is very expensive and complicated constructional work. This system includes subsurface lines, ground based lines and elevated lines. Ground based lines are usually used at the terminations of the underground railways .

Outside the immediate downtown area, the subway lines usually emerge above ground too, resembling conventional railways or elevated transit lines. Besides, the underground and surface structures involve stations, tunnels, escalators, underpasses, ventilation and sanitary engineering as well as a power supply system .

The permanent way of underground railways differs from the normal railway track. The sleepers are only 0.9m long. They are shorter than those of the railroad track which are 2.7m long. The sleepers of the normal track are laid upon ballast made of broken stone or other materials. The crossties of the underground railway are laid directly on concrete base. It is more expensive but keeps air free from dust. If the ballast were made of slag, gravel, sand or even broken stone, the train would be followed by the dust clouds .

Modern Metro trains are powered by electricity. The current is obtained from the third rail. This contact rail is laid along the whole track and transmits the direct current of 825 volts to the train electromotor through the pantograph .

The Underground carrying capacity depends on the number of coaches which ranges from 2 to 8 per train and the frequency of train running which ranges from 80 seconds to 10 minutes .

Part 2 Nowadays there are underground railways in 80 cities all over the world. The construction of the first subway system, called the Metropolitan Railway, began in London in 1860. It was built by the so-called cut-and-cover method – that is, trenches were dug along the streets, reinforced with brick sides, and roofed with girders or a brick arch. The roadway on top was then restored. The Metropolitan line was opened on January 10, 1863. It used steam locomotives, not electric power .

In 1866 excavation began for a second subway line of the London Underground. It was built using a device called a tunneling shield that allowed a tunnel to be driven under the Thames River without the danger of flooding. The tunnels were driven deep enough to avoid disturbing publicutility works, or the foundations of buildings, and there was no disruption of street traffic. The Tube—the first electric underground railway—began operation in 1890 .

In the same decade, many other cities followed London's lead. In Budapest an electric subway was opened in 1896 that used single cars with trolley poles. It was the first subway on the European continent. Because the tunnels were flat-roofed instead of arched, the original trenches were shallower than those of earlier lines. As a result, the subway construction was far less costly .

In Paris, construction of the Mtro (Chemin de fer mtropolitain de Paris) was begun in 1898, and the first 6 1/4 miles (10 kilometers) were opened in 1900. Its rapid construction was made possible largely by improved cut-and-cover methods. Vertical shafts were sunk at intervals along the planned route, and from these shafts side trenches were dug. Masonry foundations to support wooden shuttering were then placed immediately under the road surfaces. Construction of the roof arch then proceeded with little disturbance to street traffic. This method is still used in Paris .

In the United States the first practical subway line was constructed in Boston between 1895 and

1897. On October 27, 1904, New York City opened the first section of what was to become the largest subway system in the world. Other cities with notable subway systems include Philadelphia and Chicago in the United States; Toronto and Montreal in Canada; Mexico City, Mexico; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Munich and Frankfurt am Main in Germany; Milan, Italy; Cairo, Egypt; and Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, and Nagoya in Japan. The shortest metro line was constructed in Turkey. Its length is only 600 m but Istanbul is very proud of the metropolitan means of transport .

A number of major modern cities have a combination of subway and elevated railways. In addition, some have automatic trains that are operated by remote control. Lines that use automated trains include a section of the London subway system, the Victoria Line; BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) in the San Francisco Bay area; and the Washington, D.C., Metro. Greater attention is also paid to the aesthetics, comfort, safety, and convenience of subways, particularly those in Moscow and Rome .

Ex.23. Answer the following questions .

1) What is the quickest means of city’s transport? 2) Why is it necessary to construct Underground railways in large cities? 3) Why is the construction of underground railway system a very expensive and complicated engineering process? 4) What is the difference between the permanent way of underground railroads and ground-based railway tracks? 5) Why is there no ballast on the underground railways? 6) Are Metro trains powered by steam or electricity? 7) Where is the current obtained from? 8) What does the Underground carrying capacity depend on? 9) How many cities of the world have already built the Underground railways? 10) Where was the first underground railway line laid down? 11) What city has the largest subway system in the world? 12) What is the length of the metro line in Istanbul?

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Ex.25. Here are the answers. Write the questions .

1) Subsurface lines, ground based lines and elevated lines. 2) Under city streets or under rivers .

3) Only 0.9m long. 4) Directly on concrete base. 5) From the third rail. 6) In 80 cities all over the world. 7) The cut-and-cover method. 8) On January 10, 1863. 9) In Budapest. 10) In Moscow and Rome .

TEXT B Read and translate the text .

LONDON UNDERGROUND

Part 1 The underground railways as a kind of city transport appeared in the second half of the 19th century. The first underground system was proposed by Charles Pearson in 1843. Twenty years later the first line of the London Underground was opened for traffic. Its length was almost four miles .

On that first historic day 30,000 Londoners made the first underground railway travel in the world .

In the early days, the trains were driven by steam locomotives which burnt coal, filling the tunnels with smoke. It is said that the train staff and porters asked for a permission to grow beards and moustaches – as an early form of smog mask. The tunnels of the first underground were made as small as possible in order to reduce the construction costs. The coaches themselves were small and narrow .

According to Pearson’s project all lines were laid down close to the ground surface. The deep tunneling came later, in 1890. Constructing the tunnel through miles of clay, sand and gravel is no easy task, and it was James Henry Greathead who developed the method which made the construction of most London tunnels possible. One of the longest continuous tunnels in the world is the 17 mile tunnel on the Northern line. The first escalator was also installed in the London Underground in 1911 .

During the World War II the London Underground served as a shelter for thousands of Londoners. Many British Museum treasures spent the war in the tunnels of the Underground. The railways were prepared for any emergency that might occur. They had duplicate control systems, repair groups, duplicate power supply and so on. To minimize the danger of flooding the underground near the Thames, isolating doors were built in the tunnels. All the trains were equipped with special reduced lighting for using on open sections of track .

Part 2 Nowadays the London Underground (it is often called the Tube) is the most popular means of city transport because it is relatively cheap, convenient, quick and safe. Its length is about 400 km .

Every day the Tube carries over 2.5 million passengers. The total number of passengers carried by the Underground each year is enormous and it is constantly growing .

In the London Metro there are 11 underground lines, each of them has got its own color. For example, the lines are called: Central (red), Circle (yellow), East London (orange), Metropolitan (dark brown), Northern (black), Victoria (light blue) and so on .

Only half of the trains go under the ground, new lines that connect London with its suburbs go over the ground. On such routes express trains are operated. They stop at a very few stations on their way that is very convenient for those people who live in the suburbs but work in the center of London .

There are 275 stations in the London Metro. Most of them are old and not attractive to the eye .

The walls are simply white or gray plastered with all kinds of advertisements. Numerous stations which are rather deep under the ground are equipped with escalators. About 200 escalators can carry 10,000 passengers an hour at maximum speed. The longest one is at the station “Leicester Square”, its length is over 80 feet. On long escalators the speed is changeable. The “up” escalator runs at full speed when carrying passengers but when empty it moves at half speed. It is known that traffic is left-hand in Britain, but when passengers get on the escalator they stand on the right. People who hurry can run by on the left, and it seems that everybody in the Underground always hurries .

The atmosphere «underground» is considered even better than that outside. There are special pumps and fans that suck in the air from the street, purify it, and make it warm or cool on its way to the station. The air in the Underground is changed every quarter of an hour, and the temperature all year round is maintained at 69-79 degrees Fahrenheit .

The fare in the London Underground depends on the distance you travel, but the lowest is 50 pence. Tickets can be bought in the booking offices but for short journeys that cost a few pence, tickets can be obtained from automatic machines .

Safety was always one of the main concerns of the London transport. In spite of the fact that trains often follow each other within 1-3 minutes, it is said that the London Underground is the safest form of transport in the world. The most up-to-date electronic equipment is used for controlling train movement: if changes are necessary, they are made automatically and with lightning speed. No accident can happen because of human errors .

Ex.26. Answer the following general questions .

1) Did the underground railways appear in the 20th century? 2) Has the London Underground been used since 1860? 3) Was the first line of the London Underground built according to Stephenson’s project? 4) Were the first Metro trains driven by electricity? 5) Did the London Underground operate during the World War II? 6) Does the London Underground carry over

2.5 million passengers a day at present? 7) Do all Metro trains go under the ground? 8) Are all stations equipped with escalators? 9) Was safety always one of the main concerns of London transport? 10) Can any accident happen because of human errors in the London Underground?

11) Is the number of passengers carried by the London Underground constantly growing? 12) Do express trains stop at all the stations on their way? 13) Are there twelve Underground lines in London? 14) Do all the underground lines have their own color?

TEXT C Read and translate the text .

MOSCOW UNDERGROUND

For the first time the idea of building the underground railway in Moscow was discussed before the revolution. But the construction of the first section (from Sokolniki to Central Park) was initiated only in 1932. The length of this line was 11 kilometers. The construction lasted 3 years and it was called the record period of time by the world press. The Russian engineers carefully studied the existing underground systems abroad before working out their own project, which represents a significant improvement on the London system .

The engineering difficulties were great mainly because much of the soil was composed of running sand1. Fortunately most of the running sand lay close to the surface, therefore it was found possible to use out-and-cover method of construction under many streets. But in the center of the city where the line is 100 ft or more deep, the construction of tunnels was necessary .

The Moscow Underground consists of a circle line, which runs round the city center, several radial lines crossing the city and connecting with each other and the lines running to the countryside .

Some constructional work is still going on. Now the length of the underground lines reaches about 300 km .

At present the Moscow Metro handles more than 5 million passengers each day. During peak hours trains run at a speed of 90 km per hour with the intervals of about 80 seconds. One train takes up to 1,500 passengers. For greater safety of travel all trains are inspected every 6-9 hours of running. Being in operation for about 13 hours daily each metro train covers the distance equal to that from Moscow to St.Petersburg. The trains servicing the Underground are supplied with low voltage direct current. The current is obtained from the third rail by special devices that are mounted beneath the motor coaches. Rolling stock is completely replaced approximately once every four years .

The Moscow Metro can compete with the underground railways in any of the European capitals in level of automation. At present experiments are being conducted with an “automatic driver”, i.e .

with computer-controlled trains. The computer devices will help to relieve the nervous strain on the drivers and make it possible to increase the cruising speed2 of trains even more. These automatic devices have already been tested over the Circle Route by way of experiment. The Moscow Metro is justly famous for clean and attractive stations and for good service of riders at rather low fares .

Notes: running sand – сыпучий песок, плывун cruising speed – эксплуатационная скорость Ex.27. Answer the following general questions .

1) Was the possibility of constructing Metro in Moscow discussed before the revolution for the first time? 2) Did the building of the Moscow Underground begin in 1917? 3) Does the project of the Moscow Metro represent a significant improvement on the London Underground system?

4) Was the out-and-cut method the most suitable one to construct the Moscow Underground?

5) Does the Moscow Metro consist of a circle line and 2 radial ones? 6) Is the construction of the Metro still going on? 7) Do Metro trains run with the intervals of about eight minutes during peak hours? 8) Are all trains inspected for greater safety of travel every week? 9) Can the Moscow Metro compete with the underground lines of other countries in level of automation? 10) Will an “automatic driver” replace hard engine driver’s labor in future?

Ex.28. Compare the Moscow and London Undergrounds. Complete the sentences and answer the questions .

1) The first line of the Moscow Metro was opened for public traffic in …. What can you say about the London Underground?

2) The length of the first underground line in Moscow was …. What about the London Underground?

3) The trains in the Moscow Metro are driven by …. What do you know about motive power in the London Underground?

4) The total length of Metro lines in Moscow is … and it has about 160 stations. What about the London Underground?

5) All the deep stations of the Moscow Metro are equipped with … and their speed is unchangeable (about 30 meters per minute). What can you say about the London Underground?

6) In Moscow when the passengers get on the escalator they stand … so that people who hurry up or down the escalator can run by …. As you know, in Great Britain there is left-hand traffic. What about London escalators?

7) All the stations of the Moscow Metro are different in architectural design and are decorated with bronze, marble, aluminum and glass. They are attractive to the eye and ….What information do you have about the stations of the London Underground?

8) At present fare in the Moscow Metro doesn't depend on … but the management of the Metro plans to change the system of paying. What have you learnt from the text about the fare in the London Underground?

Ex.29. True or false? Correct the false statements .

1) The Moscow Metro is the oldest underground in the world. 2) The London Underground was put into operation in 1963. 3) The construction of the Moscow Metro began before the October Revolution. 4) The London Underground carries 10 million passengers a day. 5) In the Moscow Metro steam locomotives are used for pulling trains. 6) Escalators move only up. 7) The first escalator in the world was installed in the London Underground in 1912. 8) The length of escalators is the same at all stations. 9) Fare in the Moscow Underground is 200 dollars. 10) There are 20 stations in the London Underground. 11) Samara has the largest subway system in this country. 12) Airplanes are the fastest and the most reliable means of city's transport. 13) In winter it is very cold in Metro trains because there is no heating system in them. 14) Nowadays Metro trains are drawn by three horses. 15) Traffic frequency in the London Underground is one train per hour. 16) The speed of Metro trains reaches 10 km/h. 17) One carriage of a Metro train can accommodate 5,000 passengers .

Ex.30. Translate the following text from Russian into English (do it in written form) .

МЕТРО В САМАРЕ

Метрополитен в нашем городе начал работать в декабре 1987 года. Именно в то время первая линия метро (от станции Юнгородок до станции Победа) была пущена в эксплуатацию. Вторая линия метро была открыта для движения в 1993 году. Общая протяженность линий метро составляет приблизительно 20 км. Самарское метро имеет восемь станций – одну наземную и семь подземных. Планируется пустить в эксплуатацию ещё одну станцию в 2005 году. Частота движения – 10 поездов в час. Каждый поезд состоит из четырех вагонов. В вагонах установлены современные системы отопления, освещения и вентиляции .

Скорость движения поездов достигает 90 км/ч. Для удобства пассажиров на нескольких глубоких станциях установлены эскалаторы. Плата за проезд не зависит от расстояния .

Некоторые категории пассажиров, такие как ветераны, дети до семи лет могут ездить в метро бесплатно. Школьники могут купить ‘сезонку’. Метро очень популярный вид транспорта в нашем городе, и его строительство продолжается .

LESSON FIVE MODERN RAILWAYS

Ex.1. Practice the reading .

i before nd, gh, gn, ld mind, humankind, behind, find, highly, light, delight, highway, sight, might, tight, frighten, flight, alignment, design, sign, wild, mild .

о before n, v, m, th front, among, money, won, ton, month, tongue, wonder, none, glove, above, cover, dove, lovely, some, company, accompany, other, another, nothing;

BUT: move, prove, improve, approve, involve a before l+consonant talk, already, also, call, alter, always, salt, almost, alternative, walk, although, bald .

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Ex.2. Describe the relationship between each of the following words (antonyms, synonyms, neither) .

1) curve /straight 9) to arrange/ to organize 17) schedule/ timetable

2) to ensure/ to insure 10) aim/ purpose/ objective 18) to try/ to attempt

3) device/ apparatus 11) cause/ reason 19) upgrading/ grade

4) employee/ employer 12) to upgrade/ to reconstruct 20) considerable/ insignificant

5) amount/quantity 13) to enable/ to allow/ to permit 21) to ensure/ to guarantee

6) customs/ customer 14) to create/ to develop 22) grade/ gradient

7) to employ/ to apply 15) reliable/ unreliable 23) curve/ bend/ turn

8) liquid/ solid 16) to repair/ to prepare 24) valid/ invalid Ex.3. Match the English words and phrases with their Russian equivalents .

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Translate the following sentences from English into Russian. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words or phrases. Consult the box. Be careful with Grammar .

1) New track machines bought from Great Britain by Mozambique will be used for upgrading the Limpopo line in that country. 2) The car was badly damaged in the accident and was taken to ___ .

3) Special cars must be used for transporting oil and other liquid goods. 4) All measures must be taken to ensure a safe operation of trains in tunnels. 5) Lloyd’s is one of the world’s largest insurance companies. In this company one can [можно] insure not only an airplane or ___ but also a football player’s legs or a pianist’s hands. 6) Computers provide quick communication of information;

moreover they help ___ considerable amount of paperwork. 7) Carriage wheels, when passing over ___, produce ___ “click-etty-click”. 8) Each one of your suitcases will be checked when you go through the customs. 9) Having used ___ instead of steel the designers reduced the cost of the device. 10) ___ has caused considerable damage to the railway track. 11) With the introduction of ___ the safety of railway operation has been considerably increased. 12) Weather changes are often caused by cyclones and anticyclones. 13) Don’t brake too suddenly when there is ice on the road .

14) Tourism is an important industry employing thousands of people. 15) The city of Crewe is one of the busiest junctions in England; many railway lines pass through it .

Ex.4. Choose the proper word and translate the sentences .

1) The [repair; employer; device; customers] required further improvement .

2) Thanks to new cars with greater capacity the freight [repair; turnover; insurance; quality] will be increased .

3) Unfortunately the damaged car was not [insured; used; employed; created] .

4) When the engine-driver saw the truck, he [increased the speed; insured the train; tried to brake;

delivered freight in time], but it was too late .

5) Since the tape recorder is still under guarantee, I think, I won't have to pay for the [repairs;

delivery; customs; upgrading] .

6) Where can I [sell; repair; ship; insure] my broken watch?

7) Tank cars are used to transport [automobiles; passengers; mail; liquid goods] .

8) You should fill in your [customs; reliable; insurance; customer] declaration .

9) This [customer; measure; brake; curve] is very steep and dangerous. Be careful!

10) The post office [insures; delivers; arranges; works out] a considerable amount of letters each day .

11) [Tilting; freight; long-distance; commuter] trains pass curves at a high speed .

12) In some companies [employers; customers; passengers; employees] are not allowed to use the Internet for personal purpose during business hours .

13) The maximum train speed on the West Coast railway line (Great Britain) is 77 miles per hour but there are many sections where the speed is much lower because of [schedule; curves and steep grades; repair works; the weather] .

14) The flood [ensured; insured; arranged; caused] millions of dollars worth of damage on the island .

15) The problem of how to stop long trains quickly, smoothly, and safely was not solved until the invention of the air [cushion; brake; plane; conditioner] by George Westinghouse in 1869 .

Ex.5. Read and translate the sentences replacing the Russian words by their English equivalents. Be careful with Grammar .

1) The equipment [производимый] by our plant is of high [качество] 2) I am not sure that it is possible to [отремонтировать] this badly damaged car. 3) Tickets are [действительный] for one day only. 4) An undetected defect [быть причиной] an accident. 5) According to the [таможня] regulations passengers are not allowed to carry more than ten packages of cigarettes. 6) [Используя] modern technology we [увеличивать] service life of our equipment, [более того] we [уменьшать] its price. 7) When does this train [прибывать]? – According to the [расписание] it is due to arrive at 12.30 but because of track repair work, it is being delayed. 8) [Грузооборот] was reduced [из-за] a [значительный] increase in transportation [стоимость]. 9) [Проходя] the curve high speed train need not decrease its speed. 10) There are practically no [кривые участки пути] and [крутые подъёмы] on the Paris-Lyon high-speed route. 11) The underground railway is the quickest, [самый безопасный], [самый надёжный] and comfortable means of city transport. 12) The car couldn’t stop because its [тормоза] were not working .

Ex.6. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions if necessary and translate the sentences .

Consult the box .

1) The engine-driver’s cab is equipped ___ new signaling devices. 2) The traffic police took drastic measures ___ drivers breaking the traffic safety rules. 3) The insurance company will pay ___ the damaged car. 4) The train cannot move ___ the same speed along the whole route ___ curves and up-grades. 5) The double-track railways are more convenient than single-track railways because the trains need not wait ___ the other trains to pass. 6) It was proposed to upgrade the existing railway track for high-speed movement ___ building a new one. 7) The heavy traffic ___ this section ___ track caused considerable delays ___ trains. 8) In some European countries tank wagons made ___ reinforced [армированный] plastics are used for carrying wine and fruit juices. 9) Any freight can be insured ___ damage and burglary. 10) This railway company is engaged ___ arranging freight service ___ large-tonnage containers .

–  –  –

A. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the verb + gerund constructions .

1) They kept on talking though the band began playing. 2) I avoided speaking to them about that matter. 3) Try to avoid drinking unboiled water. 4) I can’t insist on your staying a little longer because you risk missing the last train. 5) I can’t help thinking of it. 6) Would you mind my leaving for a few minutes? 7) Would you mind my joining the discussion? 8) Who is responsible in your company for taking the most serious decisions during the talks? 9) Have you ever dreamed of earning a million dollars? 10) I’d like to thank you all for coming here today. 11) You should stop promising things you are unable to do. 12) He decided against calling her again. 13) I suggest holding another meeting next week. 14) I didn’t remember meeting her before but I pretended I knew her. 15) Why did they postpone discussing this project for an indefinite time? 16) She likes giving advice to other people. 17) Why does he object to signing the contract with this firm? 18) A heavy rain prevented the fire from spreading. 19) I can’t help being grateful to him for all he has done for me. 20) I live only a short way from here, so it is not worth taking a taxi to get home. 21) I don’t mind going by bus but I hate standing if there are a lot of people; it is better to go by Metro .

–  –  –

1) She has been dreaming _ ___ to the Bahamas. 2) I insist _ your ___ the new automobile to us .

3) She decided _ ___ in the conference. 4) We thanked the porter _ his ___ us with our luggage .

5) Weather conditions prevented them _ ___ their work on time. 6) The constructor insists _ our ___ the device under operating conditions. 7) I don’t usually carry my passport with me because I’m afraid _ ___ it. 8) Excuse me _ not ___ your letter. 9) I haven't heard _ ___ the schedule of this commuter train. 10) Everybody congratulated her _ ___ the exam so well. 11) The noise in the next room prevented me _ ___. 12) I’m thinking _ ___ another trip to Italy. 13) We are looking _ ___ new computers in our office. 14) The rain prevented him _ ___ to the country. 15) Excuse me _ ___ so much of your time. 16) He finished the letter with the words “I am looking _ ___ you in Moscow next summer”. 17) He insisted _ ___ for the meal .

C. Choose the correct verb and translate the sentences .

1) All the students [enjoyed; began; looked forward to] working harder in the weeks before the examinations. 2) She [avoids; forgets; dreams of] expressing her opinion in public. 3) She [prevented from; excused for; couldn’t help] laughing at his jokes. 4) Do you [go on; mind;

postpone] my airing the room? 5) She [risks; is ready for; postpones] losing everything if she follows his advice. 6) We [began; suggested; stopped] buying food in this shop because the owner raised the prices. 7) [Stop; go on; avoid] shouting! I hear you quite well. 8) I [remember; insist on;



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